Searing heat could make countries in North Africa and along the Persian Gulf unlivable

CAIRO — The heat feels relentless. Temperatures here in August regularly top 95 degrees Fahrenheit, and Sunday’s forecast projects thermometers will hit 100 F. In Ouargla, Algeria, the temperature spiked to 124.34 F on July 5 this year, the highest temperature reliably recorded on the continent of Africa. In 2016, Mitribah, Kuwait, reportedly reached 129.2 F, which could make it the highest temperature on record for the Eastern hemisphere and Asia.

With blisteringly hot summers becoming a regular occurrence, climate change could soon push an environment that is uncomfortable into one that is unsustainable — particularly for countries along the Arab Gulf and in North Africa.

The past three years have been the hottest in Egypt since temperatures have been recorded, said Ashraf Zaki, representative of the Egyptian Meteorological Authority.

“All of the extreme weather events have really been increased, the number of heat waves have increased,” he said. “Humidity levels are increased. All these issues belong to the effect of climate change.”

In Egypt, statistics show that temperatures are increasing at a faster pace and Zaki calls the trend “highly significant.” He warns that if global warming continues on this trajectory, and countries don’t take efforts to remediate the problem through guidelines like those outlined in the Paris climate accord, it could all add up to “one of the biggest disasters on the globe.”

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Life along the Nile Delta
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Life along the Nile Delta
A boy jumps into the river Nile as people celebrate the spring holiday of Sham el-Nessim on the outskirts of Cairo May 6, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 6, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 30 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
Labourers transplant rice seedlings in a paddy field in the Nile Delta town of Kafr Al-Sheikh, north of Cairo, Egypt, May 28, 2008. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri/File Photo
Fourteen-year-old Ahmed Ayman, who lives in a small village in the North of Egypt's Nile Delta, feeds his donkey, Rihanna, as he trains it to jump obstacles like many have done over the years with Equestrian jumping, in Mansoura, Egypt, Feburary 16, 2016. Ahmed and his family say they dream one day he will eventually work professionally with horses. Picture taken February 16, 2016. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany
An Egyptian man rows a boat at the River of Nile in front of posters depicting Egypt's President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi for presidential elections that reads "we've chosen you for a second term", in the town of El Mansoura in the delta north of Cairo, Egypt February 3, 2018. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany
Fourteen-year-old Ahmed Ayman, who lives in a small village in the North of Egypt's Nile Delta, trains his donkey, Rihanna, to jump obstacles like many have done over the years with Equestrian jumping, in Mansoura, Egypt, Feburary 16, 2016. Ahmed and his family say they dream one day he will eventually work professionally with horses. Picture taken February 16, 2016. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany
Fourteen-year-old Ahmed Ayman, who lives in a small village in the North of Egypt's Nile Delta, trains his donkey, Rihanna, to jump obstacles like many have done over the years with Equestrian jumping, in Mansoura, Egypt, Feburary 16, 2016. Ahmed and his family say they dream one day he will eventually work professionally with horses. Picture taken February 16, 2016. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
Fourteen-year-old Ahmed Ayman, who lives in a small village in the North of Egypt's Nile Delta and trains his donkey to jump obstacles, walks with the donkey near his house in Mansoura, Egypt, Feburary 16, 2016. Ahmed and his family say they dream one day he will eventually work professionally with horses. Picture taken February 16, 2016. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany
Fourteen-year-old Ahmed Ayman, who lives in a small village in the North of Egypt's Nile Delta and trains his donkey to jump obstacles, walks near his house in Mansoura, Egypt, Feburary 16, 2016. Ahmed and his family say they dream one day he will eventually work professionally with horses. Picture taken February 16, 2016. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany
An aerial view of farmland on the Nile River Delta, Egypt, is pictured through a plane window February 15, 2016. Egypt said on Sunday it would pay its local farmers a fixed price of 420 Egyptian pounds ($53.64) per ardeb (150 kg) of wheat in the new local procurement season starting in April, backtracking on reforms to its wheat farmer subsidy system. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh
An aerial view of farmland on the Nile River Delta, Egypt, is pictured through a plane window February 15, 2016. Egypt said on Sunday it would pay its local farmers a fixed price of 420 Egyptian pounds ($53.64) per ardeb (150 kg) of wheat in the new local procurement season starting in April, backtracking on reforms to its wheat farmer subsidy system. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh
A boy carries grain stocks to a threshing machine during a wheat crop harvest in 6 October village in the Nile Delta province of Al-Baheira, northwest of Cairo May 22, 2014. Egypt, the world's biggest wheat importer, has bought around 3 million tonnes of local wheat from farmers since the harvest began last month, the supplies minister said on Saturday. The figures are an indication that the government appears likely to meet its aim for local purchases this year. Picture taken May 22, 2014. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS AGRICULTURE BUSINESS)
A worker walks in hay coming out of a threshing machine during a wheat crop harvest in 6 October village in the Nile Delta province of Al-Baheira, northwest of Cairo May 22, 2014. Egypt, the world's biggest wheat importer, has bought around 3 million tonnes of local wheat from farmers since the harvest began last month, the supplies minister said on Saturday. The figures are an indication that the government appears likely to meet its aim for local purchases this year. Picture taken May 22, 2014. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS AGRICULTURE BUSINESS)
Farmers check grain seeds as they harvest wheat crop in 6 October village in the Nile Delta province of Al-Baheira, northwest of Cairo May 22, 2014. Egypt, the world's biggest wheat importer, has bought around 3 million tonnes of local wheat from farmers since the harvest began last month, the supplies minister said on Saturday. The figures are an indication that the government appears likely to meet its aim for local purchases this year. Picture taken May 22, 2014. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS AGRICULTURE BUSINESS)
A family collects seeds out of a threshing machine as they harvest their wheat crop in 6 October village in the Nile Delta province of Al-Baheira, northwest of Cairo May 22, 2014. Egypt, the world's biggest wheat importer, has bought around 3 million tonnes of local wheat from farmers since the harvest began last month, the supplies minister said on Saturday. The figures are an indication that the government appears likely to meet its aim for local purchases this year. Picture taken May 22, 2014. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS AGRICULTURE BUSINESS)
A boat is seen in the turbid waters of the Nile, which is caused by silt from the flooding of the river, in Cairo March 21, 2014. Ahead of World Water Day, which falls on March 22 and aims to raise global awareness of water usage and conservation, Egypt fears that a $4.7 billion dam that Ethiopia is building on one of the main tributaries of the Nile will reduce a water supply vital for its 84 million people, who mostly live in the river's valley and delta. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh (EGYPT - Tags: ENVIRONMENT)
A boy swims in the river Nile in Cairo May 6, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 6, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 32 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A boy washes his horse in the river Nile in Cairo May 22, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 22, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS CITYSCAPE ANIMALS) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 33 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A man stands in his cruise boat as he waits for customers on the river Nile in Cairo April 22, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken April 22, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS TRAVEL) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 35 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A woman rows, while another holds a net as they fish in the river Nile in Cairo April 16, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken April 16, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 36 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
People leave a boat after a cruise on the river Nile in Cairo May 5, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 5, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS TRAVEL) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 38 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
People swim in the river Nile to celebrate the spring holiday of Sham el-Nessim, on the outskirts of Cairo May 6, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 6, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 28 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
People sit on chairs set out by a cafe on the banks of the river Nile in Cairo April 21, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken April 21, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: BUSINESS POLITICS SOCIETY) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 23 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A couple talks as they sit on rocks on the banks of the river Nile on the outskirts of Cairo May 6, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 6, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 26 49 FOR PACKAGE ' NILE - LIFEBLOOD CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL
People swim in the river Nile to celebrate the spring holiday of Sham el-Nessim, on the outskirts of Cairo May 6, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 6, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 29 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
People swim in the river Nile as they celebrate the spring holiday of Sham el Nessim in Cairo, May 6, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: SOCIETY)
A fisherman uses a net to fish while another man rows their boat on the river Nile in Cairo April 4, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken April 4, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 6 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A farmer stands near his cow while it drinks from the river Nile in Cairo May 22, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 22, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY ANIMALS AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 17 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
Women wash dishes and children fish in the river Nile, in an area where many buildings lack basic utility services, in Cairo April 13, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken April 13, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 18 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A boy jumps from a ferry into the river Nile in Cairo May 22, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 22, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS TRANSPORT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 22 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
People sit in a cafe overlooking the barrages of al-Qanatir on the river Nile in Cairo May 6, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken May 6, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 21 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A girl plays on the banks of the river Nile in Cairo April 5, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken April 5, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS SOCIETY ENVIRONMENT) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 16 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A small cruise boat passes Nile City Towers, which is owned by Naguib Sawiris the owner of Orascom Telecom, overlooking the river Nile in Cairo June 7, 2013. Most of Egypt's population live clustered around the Nile valley and delta, and the river is both a vital resource for the country's citizens, and a potent national symbol. In a recent dispute with Ethiopia over the construction of a dam upstream, Egypt's foreign minister Mohamed Kamel Amr underlined the country's reliance on the river's waters: "No Nile - no Egypt," he said. Picture taken June 7, 2013. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih (EGYPT - Tags: POLITICS ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS CITYSCAPE TRAVEL TELECOMS) ATTENTION EDITORS: PICTURE 12 OF 49 FOR PACKAGE 'THE NILE - LIFEBLOOD OF CAIRO'. SEARCH 'NILE LIFEBLOOD' FOR ALL IMAGES
A night time photograph made by an International Space Station Expedition 25 crewmember shows the bright lights of Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt on the Mediterranean coast as well as the Nile River and its delta which stand out clearly in this image released by NASA and taken October 28, 2010. REUTERS/NASA (UNITED STATES - Tags: SCI TECH) FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS
Students go to school in a boat in Lake Manzala, near Port Said, north Nile Delta, about 300 km (186 miles) north of Cairo, November 23, 2008 . REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
Workers carry sacks of rice in the Nile Delta town of Mansoura city, 210 km (130 miles) north of Cairo, March 30, 2008. The Egyptian government is banning rice exports from April 1 to October to hold down local prices, the state news agency MENA said on March 26. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
Workers carry sacks of rice in the Nile Delta town of Mansoura city, 210 km (130 miles) north of Cairo, in March 30, 2008. The Egyptian government is banning rice exports from April 1 to October to hold down local prices, the state news agency MENA said on March 26. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
A worker carries bricks at a factory in the Nile Delta town of Mansoura city, 210 km (130 miles) north of Cairo, March 30, 2008. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
Workers carry bricks at a factory in the Nile Delta town of Mansoura city, 210 km (130 miles) north of Cairo March 30, 2008. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
A girl empties a container at a canal in the Nile Delta town of Al-Borollos 300 km (186 miles) north of Cairo March 18, 2008. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
Women carry plastic bottles to collect water from a canal in the Nile Delta town of Al-Borollos 300 km (186 miles) north of Cairo March 18, 2008. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
A woman washes her pots and pans in a canal in the Nile Delta town of Al-Borollos 300 km (186 miles) north of Cairo March 18, 2008. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
An Egyptian man works at a fish farm in the town of Rashid in the delta of the Nile River, some 230km (140 miles) north of Cairo October 8, 2006. Fish farming and agriculture provide the main sources of income in the Nile Delta area. REUTERS/Goran Tomasevic (EGYPT)
People fill water containers in the Nile Delta in Bilqasz, 300km north of Cairo, July 25 2007. A historical potable water shortage in this area sparked protests by thousands of angry citizens in mid-July, dubbed "the revolt of the thirsty" by Egyptian media. Picture taken July 25, 2007. REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
A worker plants garlic between orange plants at the Desert Development Center in the Nile Delta, September 20, 2007. It looks like a mirage but the lush fields of cauliflower, apricot trees and melon growing among a vast stretch of sand north of Cairo's pyramids is all too real -- proof of Egypt's determination to turn its deserts green. Picture taken September 20, 2007. To match feature DESERT-EGYPT/ REUTERS/Tara Todras-Whitehill (EGYPT)
An Egyptian man rows a boat in front of a fish farm in the town of Rashid in the delta of the Nile River, some 230 km (140 miles) north of Cairo October 8, 2006. Fish farming and agriculture provide the main sources of income in the Nile Delta area. REUTERS/Goran Tomasevic (EGYPT)
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In the fertile Nile Delta, rising sea levels and a rising water table are already cutting into Egypt’s precious 4 percent of arable farmland. In the worst affected areas off the Mediterranean, up to 6.25 to 12.5 miles from the shoreline have already become saline.

“The main problem that most people are talking about is inundation by sea level rise for the Nile Delta. There is another problem: saltwater intrusion,” said Mohamed Abdrabo, director of Alexandria Research Center for Adaptation to Climate Change.

To combat that, some coastal farmers are building up soil to raise their land and switching to salt-resistant crops like rice.

“We are talking about billions of dollars in terms of losses due to saltwater intrusion,” said Abdrabo.

In Alexandria, Egypt’s second largest city, about a quarter of the coast could be inundated if sea levels continue to rise, according to recent studies.

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Foods that could go extinct due to climate change
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Foods that could go extinct due to climate change

Avocados

There are many reasons why avocados are more expensive now than ever before, including a farmers' strike. But the biggest threats to avocados are rooted in environmental issues linked to climate change: hot weather and droughts have caused problems everywhere from California to Australia. Avocados are weather-sensitive and slow growing — making them especially susceptible to the effects of climate change. 

(Photo credit should read RONALDO SCHEMIDT/AFP/Getty Images)

Coffee

In September, a report from the nonprofit Climate Institute concluded that the area around the world fit for coffee production would decrease by 50% due to climate change. In addition to dealing with drought, climate change has made coffee crops more vulnerable to diseases like coffee rust, which have wiped out more than a billion dollars in crops. 

(Photo by Taylor Weidman/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

Beer

Warmer and more extreme weather is hurting hops production in the US, reports ClimateWatch Magazine. 

And droughts could mean less tasty drinks. Some brewers fear that a shortage of river water may force them to brew with groundwater — a change that the head brewer at Lagunitas said "would be like brewing with Alka-Seltzer," according to NPR. 

(Photo via Getty Images)

Oysters

Right now, climate change is actually helping oysters, as they grow faster in warmer waters. However, warmer waters also make oysters more susceptible to oyster drills, reports Seeker, citing a recent study in Functional Ecology

Drills are snails that attack and eat oysters. They're already a multi-million dollar problem for the oyster industry that could get worse thanks to warming water temperatures.

(Photo via Getty Images)

Maple syrup

Climate change is already shifting maple syrup tapping season and impacting the quality of syrup, according to Climate Central. Southern producers fear that eventually, areas like Virginia won't get cold enough for maple syrup production, even during the chilliest time of the year. 

(Photo via Getty Images)

Chocolate

Indonesia and Ghana, which have historically had ideal climates for growing cocoa beans, are already seeing decreased yields of cocoa. Chocolate companies, like Mars, have hired meteorologists to study the impact of changing weather patterns and attempt to reduce damage. 

"If climate conditions in these growing areas begin to change over time, it may influence both the supply and quality available of an ingredient that we use in our products," Katie Johnson, a senior manager on the commercial applied research team, told Business Insider in September. "Anticipating what the climate will be like 10, 20, or even 100 years from now is difficult, though the better we can understand what the different climate scenarios and risks to our supply chain are, the more prepared we can be in the future."

(Photo by Charlotte Lake / Alamy)

Lobsters

If ocean waters increase more than five degrees, baby lobsters may not be able to survive, according to research by the University of Maine Darling Marine Center and Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, the Guardian reported. 

The United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has said that the Gulf of Maine will reach that temperature by 2100. In other words, Maine's lobsters could go from a more than $330 million business to extinct in 84 years. 

(Photo via Getty Images)

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“The problem with sea level rise and saltwater intrusion and most of the impacts of climate change you’re talking about in Egypt, it will be mostly gradual, which means you don’t feel it,” Abdrabo said.

In the muggy Arabian Gulf — which includes the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Oman — the immediate risk of soaring heat and humidity overshadows the distant threat of rising sea levels. An MIT research team determinedthat future temperatures there and in southwest Asia will exceed the threshold for human survival if nations fail to reign in emissions.

According to an MIT video on the subject, “exposure to wet bulb temperatures above 35 C (95 F) is enough to cause the fittest to overheat and begin to fail.” Wet bulb temperature measures the combination of heat and humidity to determine how well the body can cool itself by sweating.

Elfatih Eltahir, MIT professor of Hydrology and Climate and co-author of the paper, explained that they were able to measure how reducing emissions would decrease the number and severity of heat waves.

In a nod to the gravity of the situation, the United Arab Emirates became the only Gulf country to establish a ministry dedicated to climate change that cuts across public and private sectors. The country launched a proactive plan guiding a transition to a green economy, cutting emissions, limiting risk and increasing adaptability to 2050.

By that year, the country intends to double the contribution of clean energy to half of the total amount, reduce the carbon footprint by 70 percent and save $700 billion. Rising sea levels could eventually threaten 90 percent of infrastructure on the coast line in that country, but the immediate risk is the heat.

“Here in the UAE we have already reached 104 F, we are almost touching 122 F…. We look at it as if we are on the front line compared to others,” said Fahed Alhammadi, assistant undersecretary in the Ministry of Climate Change and Environment. “We are now developing scenarios … where we need to start to review our own regulations and law … We need to start monitoring diseases associated with temperature increase in order to bring these figures down.”

In the UAE, all residences, no matter how remote, have access to a continuous energy supply for air conditioning. A green building code mandates energy efficiency, and district cooling systems that service areas rather than individual buildings has cut demand by half.

As temperatures spike, comfort and even survival will hinge on air conditioning.

The hope is that many of those cooling systems will be powered by renewable energy: Morocco and Egypt, for example, are developing the biggest wind farm in Africa, and Egypt is also developing the biggest solar farm in the world.

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Climate change: A look at polar ice melting
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Climate change: A look at polar ice melting
ILULISSAT, GREENLAND - JULY 22: Seagulls sit on an iceberg on July 22, 2013 in Ilulissat, Greenland. As Greenlanders adapt to the changing climate and go on with their lives, researchers from the National Science Foundation and other organizations are studying the phenomena of the melting glaciers and its long-term ramifications for the rest of the world. In recent years, sea level rise in places such as Miami Beach has led to increased street flooding and prompted leaders such as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to propose a $19.5 billion plan to boost the citys capacity to withstand future extreme weather events by, among other things, devising mechanisms to withstand flooding. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
ILULISSAT, GREENLAND - JULY 25: Pedestrians walk along the road on July 26, 2013 in Ilulissat, Greenland. As Greenlanders adapt to the changing climate and go on with their lives, researchers from the National Science Foundation and other organizations are studying the phenomena of the melting glaciers and its long-term ramifications for the rest of the world. In recent years, sea level rise in places such as Miami Beach has led to increased street flooding and prompted leaders such as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to propose a $19.5 billion plan to boost the citys capacity to withstand future extreme weather events by, among other things, devising mechanisms to withstand flooding. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
ILULISSAT, GREENLAND - JULY 24: Jason Briner, with the University of Buffalo, Department of Geology, flies in a helicopter to a spot to gather samples of granite to research the age of the local glacial retreat on July 24, 2013 in Ilulissat, Greenland. As Greenlanders adapt to the changing climate and go on with their lives, researchers from the National Science Foundation and other organizations are studying the phenomena of the melting glaciers and its long-term ramifications for the rest of the world. In recent years, sea level rise in places such as Miami Beach has led to increased street flooding and prompted leaders such as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to propose a $19.5 billion plan to boost the citys capacity to withstand future extreme weather events by, among other things, devising mechanisms to withstand flooding. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
ILULISSAT, GREENLAND - JULY 17: Icebergs float in the water on July 17, 2013 in Ilulissat, Greenland. As Greenlanders adapt to the changing climate and go on with their lives, researchers from the National Science Foundation and other organizations are studying the phenomena of the melting glaciers and its long-term ramifications for the rest of the world. In recent years, sea level rise in places such as Miami Beach has led to increased street flooding and prompted leaders such as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to propose a $19.5 billion plan to boost the citys capacity to withstand future extreme weather events by, among other things, devising mechanisms to withstand flooding. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
ILULISSAT, GREENLAND - JULY 22: A fish hangs from a fishermans hook on July 22, 2013 in Ilulissat, Greenland. As Greenlanders adapt to the changing climate and go on with their lives, researchers from the National Science Foundation and other organizations are studying the phenomena of the melting glaciers and its long-term ramifications for the rest of the world. In recent years, sea level rise in places such as Miami Beach has led to increased street flooding and prompted leaders such as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to propose a $19.5 billion plan to boost the citys capacity to withstand future extreme weather events by, among other things, devising mechanisms to withstand flooding. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
UNSPECIFIED - AUGUST 01: Aerial view of melt season in the Antarctic Peninsula - Antarctica. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
KANGERLUSSUAQ, GREENLAND - JULY 14: Blooming flowers are seen near the glacial ice toe on July 14, 2013 in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. As the sea levels around the globe rise, researchers affiliated with the National Science Foundation and other organizations are studying the phenomena of the melting glaciers and its long-term ramifications. In recent years, sea level rise in places such as Miami Beach has led to increased street flooding and prompted leaders such as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to propose a $19.5 billion plan to boost the citys capacity to withstand future extreme weather events by, among other things, devising mechanisms to withstand flooding. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
ILULISSAT, GREENLAND - JULY 15: A glacial toe is seen on July 15, 2013 near Ilulissat, Greenland. As the sea levels around the globe rise, researchers affiliated with the National Science Foundation and other organizations are studying the phenomena of the melting glaciers and its long-term ramifications. In recent years, sea level rise in places such as Miami Beach has led to increased street flooding and prompted leaders such as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to propose a $19.5 billion plan to boost the citys capacity to withstand future extreme weather events by, among other things, devising mechanisms to withstand flooding. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
QAANAAQ, GREENLAND - AUGUST 01: (CHINA OUT, SOUTH KOREA OUT) A researcher of Japan's National Institute of Polar Research investigates the glacier coloured to red by being covered by glacier organisms on August 1, 2012 near Qaanaaq, Greenland. In Greenland there is said to be approximately ten percent of ice of the earth and the large scale melting of the glacier and ice may affect to the global climate change. (Photo by The Asahi Shimbun via Getty Images)
A child wades through the flood waters in front of the Doges' Palace, next to a flooded St. Mark's Square, in Venice on November 7, 2014. The high water, a combination of high tides and a strong Scirocco wind in the Adriatic Sea, stood at 110 centimeters early on November 7. The city has for years been wrestling with the problems posed by the threat of rising sea levels. AFP PHOTO / OLIVIER MORIN (Photo credit should read OLIVIER MORIN/AFP/Getty Images)
HOOPERS ISLAND, MD - OCTOBER 30: Donny Willey stands near graves that were once several yards from the waters edge are now exposed and releasing human remains by the eroding waters of the Chesapeake Bay at the Anchor of Hope Cemetery October 30, 2014 in Hoopers Island, Maryland. Willey volunteered his time to try and save the cemetery from erosion and cannot get a permit from the state of Maryland to erect a seawall. The cemetery is the resting place of more than 150 men, women, and children; from the War of 1812 to veterans of several other wars, from the founding family of Hoopers Island to slaves and freed slaves. With sea levels projected to rise several feet over the next century, several islands in the Chesapeake Bay region are slowly eroding away. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
ROBBINS, MD - OCTOBER 09: A truck drives on Robbins Road that is flooded from the high tide of the Blackwater River October 9, 2014 in Robbins, Maryland. Several islands and property's located at sea level in the lower Chesapeake Bay region are slowly eroding away as sea levels rise. Officials have projected the sea level will rise several feet over the next century leaving many of the Chesapeake bay's lower islands underwater. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
HOOPERS ISLAND, MD - OCTOBER 08: A Snapping Turtle sits in the middle of the road October 8, 2014 in Hoopers Island, Maryland. Several islands in the Chesapeake Bay region are slowly eroding away as sea levels are projected to rise several feet over the next century. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
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“I think that by the middle of the century, having in the range of 140 to 160 F more regularly in the Gulf and other countries is going to be the new normal,” said Harald Heubaum, global energy and climate policy expert at the School of African and Oriental Studies in London. “The demand for cooling will triple at least and it will be the main driver of electric consumption.”

He and other analysts believe every country should be doing more to avoid drastic consequences.

“We have the solutions; we know technologically what we need to do,” he said. “It’s economically feasible. It’s the political will that’s missing in so many parts of the world unfortunately.”

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