Germany closes last of black coal mines that shaped country

BERLIN (AP) — Germany is closing its last black coal mines, ending an industry that laid the foundations for the country's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery.

On Friday, Miners planned to hand German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier a symbolic last lump of coal hauled up from 1,200 meters (3,940 feet) below ground at the Prosper-Haniel mine in the western city of Bottrop. Along with another mine, in the town of Ibbenbueren about 62 miles to the north, it will be formally shuttered at the end of the year.

"This marks the end of a significant era in Germany," government spokeswoman Ulrike Demmer said.

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Germany closes last of black coal mines
Miners hold the last lump of coal during a closing ceremony of the last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
A coal miner in a traditional dress hides tears during a closing ceremony of the last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
Boots hang in the empty dressing room of the closed last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
A helmet hangs in the empty dressing room of the closed last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker, gives interviews in the dressing room of the closed last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
Dark clouds are seen over of the closed last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier, center, receives a symbolic last lump of coal next to the President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, right, during a closing ceremony of the last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
The empty dressing room is pictured during the closing of the last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
A coal miner in a traditional dress hides tears during a closing ceremony of the last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
A coal miner sings with tears in his eyes during a closing ceremony of the last German coal mine Prosper-Haniel in Bottrop, Germany, Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. The end of black coal production marks the end of an industry that started German's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. The mines once dominated the surrounding Ruhr region, employing up to half a million people. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner)
FILE - In this Monday, May 14, 2018 file photo miners attend coal extraction in the Prosper-Haniel coal mine in Bottrop, Germany. Germany is closing one of its last two black coal mines Friday, ending an industry that laid the foundations for the country's industrial revolution and its post-war economic recovery. (AP Photo/Martin Meissner, file)
Bottrop, GERMANY - OCTOBER 21: The shaft tower and a sculpture with the miners greeting 'Glueck auf' pictured at the last coal at Prosper-Haniel coal mine during the closing ceremony on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, Germany. Prosper-Haniel was Germany's last underground coal mine. The mine began operation in the mid-nineteenth century and was part of a network of coal mines in the Ruhr region that fueled Germany's industrial revolution. Owned by German mining company RAG, the Prosper-Haniel mine employs 4,100 people. (Photo by Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images)
Bottrop, GERMANY - OCTOBER 21: Germans President Frank Walter Steinmeier (C) speaks after miner Juergen Jakuweit (2-L) gave over the last coal while European Commission Jean-Claude Junker (4-L) and CEO of RAG Peter Schrimpf (L) stands next to them at Prosper-Haniel coal mine during the closing ceremony on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, Germany. Prosper-Haniel was Germany's last underground coal mine. The mine began operation in the mid-nineteenth century and was part of a network of coal mines in the Ruhr region that fueled Germany's industrial revolution. Owned by German mining company RAG, the Prosper-Haniel mine employs 4,100 people. (Photo by Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images)
Coal miners react at the Prosper Haniel colliery on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, western Germany after the last piece of black coal was coaled. - Germany closed its last black coal mine, paying an emotional tribute to a 200-year-old industry that once fuelled the country's economic growth but lost the battle against cheaper foreign competitors. (Photo by Patrik STOLLARZ / AFP) (Photo credit should read PATRIK STOLLARZ/AFP/Getty Images)
Bottrop, GERMANY - OCTOBER 21: Miners walk after the closing ceremony at Prosper-Haniel coal mine on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, Germany. Prosper-Haniel was Germany's last underground coal mine. The mine began operation in the mid-nineteenth century and was part of a network of coal mines in the Ruhr region that fueled Germany's industrial revolution. Owned by German mining company RAG, the Prosper-Haniel mine employs 4,100 people. (Photo by Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images)
Locks are pictured at the coop at the mine Prosper Haniel colliery on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, western Germany after the last piece of black coal was coaled. - Germany closed its last black coal mine, paying an emotional tribute to a 200-year-old industry that once fuelled the country's economic growth but lost the battle against cheaper foreign competitors. (Photo by Patrik STOLLARZ / AFP) (Photo credit should read PATRIK STOLLARZ/AFP/Getty Images)
Bottrop, GERMANY - OCTOBER 21: CEO of RAG, Peter Schrimpf (L) console miner Juergen Jakubeit with the last coal at Prosper-Haniel coal mine during the closing ceremony on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, Germany. Prosper-Haniel was Germany's last underground coal mine. The mine began operation in the mid-nineteenth century and was part of a network of coal mines in the Ruhr region that fueled Germany's industrial revolution. Owned by German mining company RAG, the Prosper-Haniel mine employs 4,100 people. (Photo by Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images)
A coal miner leaves the mine Prosper Haniel colliery on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, western Germany after the last piece of black coal was coaled. - Germany closed its last black coal mine, paying an emotional tribute to a 200-year-old industry that once fuelled the country's economic growth but lost the battle against cheaper foreign competitors. (Photo by Patrik STOLLARZ / AFP) (Photo credit should read PATRIK STOLLARZ/AFP/Getty Images)
Coal miner Mehmet Kalyoncu closes the elevator door after the last piece of black coal was coaled at the Prosper Haniel colliery on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, western Germany. - Germany closed its last black coal mine, paying an emotional tribute to a 200-year-old industry that once fuelled the country's economic growth but lost the battle against cheaper foreign competitors. (Photo by Patrik STOLLARZ / AFP) (Photo credit should read PATRIK STOLLARZ/AFP/Getty Images)
Coal miner Juergen Jakubeit (front) holds the last piece of black coal in front miners hugging each other at at the Prosper Haniel colliery on December 21, 2018 in Bottrop, western Germany. - Germany closed its last black coal mine, paying an emotional tribute to a 200-year-old industry that once fuelled the country's economic growth but lost the battle against cheaper foreign competitors. (Photo by Patrik STOLLARZ / AFP) (Photo credit should read PATRIK STOLLARZ/AFP/Getty Images)
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"Black coal enabled the industrialization of the region and with it prosperity in all of Germany," she added. "This should be honored because we all benefit, even indirectly, to this day."

Black coal mines once dominated the Ruhr region surrounding Bottrop, employing up to half a million people at their peak in the 1950s. But they have since been in steady decline, surviving only thanks to generous subsidies.

The region has received more than 40 billion euros ($46 billion) in federal funds since 1998 and is slated to get another 2.7 billion euros through 2022, in part to deal with mine maintenance and environmental cleanup efforts. The figures don't include money spent supporting economic redevelopment in the Ruhr region, which has seen a growth in universities, research facilities and IT start-ups in recent years.

The end of the deep-shaft mines is seen as a test for the planned closure of open-cast lignite, or brown coal, mines still operating in Germany.

The country generates almost two-fifths of its electricity from burning coal, a situation that scientists say can't continue if Germany wants to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in line with international efforts to curb climate change.

But some fear that other sources of energy — chiefly renewables — may not be sufficient, especially as Germany plans to shut down its nuclear plants by 2022.

A government-appointed panel is due to deliver a report in February laying out proposals for the gradual phasing out of lignite mines. The experts, including party officials, environmentalists and miners union representatives, will also propose ways in which tens of thousands of people whose jobs still depend on the coal industry can find new work in future.

One of the panel's members said the hundreds of billions in subsidies paid to prop up black coal in Germany were a cautionary tale.

"This time we cannot do it incrementally, in a piecemeal way," Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, founder of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, told The Associated Press.

With about 420 coal mining regions around the globe facing similar pressure to shut down in the coming years, Schellnhuber said Germany could become a pioneer in the transition away from fossil fuels.

At Friday's ceremony, miners were expected to pay their respects to colleagues who lost their lives underground. The dangers were highlighted Monday, when a 29-year-old worker was crushed to death by a metal door in the Ibbenbueren shaft. And overnight Friday, news emerged of the death of 13 miners in an explosion at a colliery in the Czech Republic.

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