Chile cracks down on migrants, but many still try their luck

ARICA, Chile, Dec 17 (Reuters) - In the pitch black of the moonless Chilean desert night, the Cuban man is hard to spot until he is within yards of the border.

Placing a small backpack of clothes on the ground, Yoniel Torres, 31, a father of two, puts his hands up as police approach with flashlights and take him into custody.

"A coyote (people trafficker) left me near (the Peruvian border town of) Tacna and told me to follow the old railway line," he tells Reuters as he is led away. "This is all horrible. The journey was so hard. I just came in search of a better life."

Scenes like this are replicated every day along Chile's long land border. The country is hardening its stance towards immigration, and refused to sign a United Nations migration pact last week aimed at improving migrant integration and protection.

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Chile cracks down on migrants, but many still try their luck
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Chile cracks down on migrants, but many still try their luck

Migrant Yoniel Torres, 31, from Cuba is handcuffed after being detained by the police by a train line in a mined area of desert at the Chilean and Peruvian border in Arica, Chile, November 14, 2018. "A coyote (people trafficker) left me near (Peruvian border town) Tacna and told me to follow the old railway line," Torres said. "This is all horrible. The journey was so hard. I just came in search of a better life." 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

A flag waves as foreigners visit the Morro de Arica national monument, near the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 15, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

A lawyer talks to his clients, alleged people-trafficking gang members, at a court near the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 16, 2018.

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Policemen look out from a watchtower at the Chilean and Peruvian border, near Arica, Chile, November 16, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Undocumented Bolivian migrant known as Ramiro, 39, arrives at the camp where he works at the Chilean and Peruvian border, near Arica, Chile, November 17, 2018.

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Haitian migrant Stephane, 19, hides his face as he poses for a picture at a house in the Cherro Chuno neighbourhood, near the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 18, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

A general view of Arica near the Chilean and Peruvian border, Chile, November 15, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

A damaged border post is illuminated during a police patrol at a restricted mined area at the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 15, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

An effigy of a person is displayed on a fence next to a banner reading "No more robberies. People caught stealing will be burned. Community justice" in the Cherro Chuno neighbourhood, near the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 18, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

A policeman uses a lamp to light up a train line used by migrants to guide themselves and avoid the frontier check points at a mined area of desert at the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 14, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Policemen inspect an empty building, which is used by migrants to shelter themselves after avoiding frontier check points, in a mined area of desert at the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 14, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

A milestone is seen using a night vision device during a police patrol at a restricted mined area, at the Chilean and Peruvian border in Arica, Chile, November 15, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Undocumented Bolivian migrants known as Amelia, 40, and Ramiro, 39, collect their stuff after washing clothes where they work at the Chilean and Peruvian border near Arica, Chile, November 17, 2018.

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Migrant Yoniel Torres, 31, from Cuba is handcuffed after being detained by the police by a train line in a mined area of desert at the Chilean and Peruvian border, in Arica, Chile, November 14, 2018. "A coyote (people trafficker) left me near (Peruvian border town) Tacna and told me to follow the old railway line," Torres said. "This is all horrible. The journey was so hard. I just came in search of a better life." 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

An empty building which is used by migrants to shelter themselves after avoiding frontier check points stands in a mined area of desert at the Chilean and Peruvian border in Arica, Chile, November 14, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Undocumented Bolivian migrant known as Elvis, 40, uses a mobile phone after work, at the Chilean and Peruvian border near Arica, Chile, November 17, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Migrants' footprints are inspected during a police patrol at a restricted mined area of desert, at the Chilean and Peruvian border in Arica, Chile, November 16, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Migrants' clothes are seen during a police patrol at a restricted mined area of desert, at the Chilean and Peruvian border in Arica, Chile, November 16, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

An undocumented Bolivian migrant washes his clothes where he works as his dog looks on, at the Chilean and Peruvian border near Arica, Chile, November 17, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Venezuelan migrant Angel Torres, 34, controls access to La Posta restaurant where Venezuelan migrants work, at the Chilean-Peruvian border in Arica, Chile, November 16, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

Migrant Mislady Herrera from Cuba who was detained by the police is transported to an immigration office, at the Chilean and Peruvian border in Arica, Chile, November 16, 2018. 

(REUTERS/Ivan Alvarado)

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Global attention largely falls on perilous Mediterranean Sea crossings and the uncertain fate of the Central American caravan at the U.S.-Mexico border. But Chile and other comparatively wealthy Latin American nations are absorbing another wave of mass migration from destitute nations in the region such as Haiti and Venezuela.

Some migrants, like Torres, travel up to 5,600 miles (9,000 km) by air and land to get as far as Chile. The country has the highest GDP per capita in South America, low levels of corruption and the lowest murder rate, according to figures from the World Bank and InSight Crime, a foundation that analyzes organized crime.

They endure Amazonian humidity then extreme temperatures and high altitude in the deserts between Peru, Bolivia and Chile.

Immigration into Chile has increased sixfold in less than 30 years, from 114,500 in the 1992 census, to 746,465 last year.

There has also been a spike in illegal migration. In the dusty Arica region at Peru's southern border, Chilean police say they caught more than 2,200 foreigners attempting to enter the country illegally between January and November, up 80 percent from the previous year.

Guided in many cases by traffickers paid as much as $3,000, police say, the migrants cross in remote areas to avoid border guards, risking a fatal encounter with landmines planted on the frontier decades ago on the orders of former dictator Augusto Pinochet.

Javiera Lopez, Arica's chief prosecutor, says migrants often suffer sexual assault and robberies on the journey.

"There are scars that might never heal, not only from the journey but also once in Chile because they find the situation is totally different to the one they thought they would find," he says.

Those who make it to Chile often live a precarious existence. Haitians, Dominicans and Bolivians live cheek by jowl in tumbledown neighborhoods such as Arica's Cerro Chuno, scraping together a living working in restaurants and mines. Racism and job discrimination is common.

The 29 countries who refused to sign the UN Migration Pact argue that it undermines their sovereignty.

"People have a right to leave their country when they feel it is right," Chilean Foreign Minister Roberto Ampuero told a Senate committee last week. "But ... they cannot go to any country they want to."

(Reporting by Antonio de la Jara and Aislinn Laing; Editing by Rosalba O'Brien)

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