The incredible true story of when WWI stopped for enemy armies to celebrate Christmas together

  • Millions of soldiers and civilians died in World War I during a conflict that changed the way war was waged.
  • WWI is known for gruesome trench warfare.
  • On Christmas Day, 1914, a spontaneous truce broke out.


World War I is, for good reason, remembered as one of the worst wars fought in human history.

Millions of soldiers and civilians died in a conflict that changed the way war was waged and set the stage for the rest of the 20th century.

But for one night and one day, some units in the warring parties — the armies of France and Britain on one side, and Germany on the other — put down their weapons for the briefest of moments to celebrate a holiday that brought opposing sides together. 

The Great War was supposed to be over by Christmas of 1914. But five months after the war began in July, the front was deadlocked. The unprecedented losses at the Battles of Tannenberg, the Marne, and Ypres forced the opposing sides into the gruesome trench warfare that WWI is known for.

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One Hundred Years Later - World War One
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Silhouetted tourists take pictures in front of advertising boards at Piccadilly Circus before the lights are turned off on iconic buildings as the city marks the centenary of the outbreak of World War I on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th Anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium's neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of casualties. A series of events commemorating the 100th Anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Matthew Lloyd/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: A policeman is silhouetted against advertising boards at Piccadilly Circus before the lights are turned off on iconic buildings as the city marks the centenary of the outbreak of World War I on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th Anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium's neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of casualties. A series of events commemorating the 100th Anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Matthew Lloyd/Getty Images)
A work of art entitled 'spectra' by Japanese artist Ryoji Ikeda is pictured in London, on August 4, 2014, as part of the national commemorations marking the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War. Lights went out in homes across Britain on Monday as part of commemorations marking 100 years since the outbreak of World War I, which claimed the lives of nearly one million Britons. AFP PHOTO / JUSTIN TALLIS (Photo credit should read JUSTIN TALLIS/AFP/Getty Images)
A single light is left illuminated outside the National Gallery in London, on August 4, 2014. Lights went out in homes across Britain on Monday as part of commemorations marking 100 years since the outbreak of World War I, which claimed the lives of nearly one million Britons. AFP PHOTO / JUSTIN TALLIS (Photo credit should read JUSTIN TALLIS/AFP/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: A single window is illuminated in Buckingham Palace as the lights are turned off on iconic buildings around London to mark the centenary of the outbreak of World War I on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th Anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium's neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of casualties. A series of events commemorating the 100th Anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Matthew Lloyd/Getty Images)
A single illuminated lantern is left outside the door of 10 Downing Street in London, on August 4, 2014. Lights went out in homes across Britain on Monday as part of commemorations marking 100 years since the outbreak of World War I, which claimed the lives of nearly one million Britons. AFP PHOTO / JUSTIN TALLIS (Photo credit should read JUSTIN TALLIS/AFP/Getty Images)
LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 04: The Houses of Parliament are seen in darkness as the lights are turned off iconic buildings as the city marks the centenary of the outbreak of World War 1 on August 4, 2014 in London, United Kingdom. Monday 4th of August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or Great War lasted until 11th November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of caausalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Tristan Fewings/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 4: The Houses of Parliament are seen from Westminster Bridge before the lights are turned off on iconic buildings around London to mark the centenary of the outbreak of World War One on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11 pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Rob Stothard/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 4: Big Ben strikes 2300 hours as the lights are turned off on iconic buildings as the city marks the centenary of the outbreak of World War On on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11 pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Rob Stothard/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 4: A man places a candle on the doorstep of number 10 Downing Street as the lights are turned off on iconic buildings as the city marks the centenary of the outbreak of World War On on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Rob Stothard/Getty Images)
FOLKESTONE, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Harry attends the 'Step Short' commemorative event in Folkestone to mark the centenary of the First World War on August 4, 2014 in Folkestone, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Anthony Harvey/Getty Images)
FOLKESTONE, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Harry attends the 'Step Short' commemorative event to unveil the Folkestone Memorial Arch, to mark the centenary of the First World War on August 4, 2014 in Folkestone, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Steve Parsons - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
FOLKESTONE, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Harry attends the 'Step Short' commemorative event to unveil the Folkestone Memorial Arch, to mark the centenary of the First World War on August 4, 2014 in Folkestone, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Steve Parsons - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
FOLKESTONE, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Harry attends the 'Step Short' commemorative event to unveil the Folkestone Memorial Arch, to mark the centenary of the First World War on August 4, 2014 in Folkestone, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Steve Parsons - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
BOVINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 04: Members of the Great War Society living history group dressed as 4th Battalion the Middlesex Regiment wait to take part in a World War One centenary ceremony at the Tank Museum, Bovington on August 4, 2014 in England. Monday August 4, 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11 pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images)
BOVINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 04: Members of a living history group dressed as Gordon Highlanders march through a poppy strewn field after a World War One centenary ceremony at the Tank Museum, Bovington on August 4, 2014 in England. Monday August 4, 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11 pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images)
BOVINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 04: Members of the Great War Society living history group dressed as 4th Battalion the Middlesex Regiment stand under a shower of a million poppy flowers representing the dead during a World War One centenary ceremony at the Tank Museum, Bovington on August 4, 2014 in England. Monday August 4, 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11 pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images)
BOVINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 04: Members of the Great War Society living history group dressed as 4th Battalion the Middlesex Regiment stand under a shower of a million poppy flowers representing the dead during a World War One centenary ceremony at the Tank Museum, Bovington on August 4, 2014 in England. Monday August 4, 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images)
BOVINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 04: Members of a living history society walk behind a replica tank during a World War One centenary ceremony at the Tank Museum, Bovington on August 4, 2014 in England. Monday August 4, 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11 pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images)
BOVINGTON, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 04: A member of a living history group dressed as a Gordon Highlander plays dead as he takes part in a World War One battle re-enactment at the Tank Museum, Bovington on August 4, 2014 in England. Monday August 4, 2014 marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11 pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Chelsea Pensioners take part in the Great War centenary parade of Edwardian cars as it passes down The Mall on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Justin Setterfield/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: An oil lamp burns next to the 'Grave of the Unknown Warrior' in Westminster Abbey , which is decorated with flowers, ahead of a candlelight vigil attended by the Duchess of Cornwall this evening marking the start of Britain's involvement in the First World War on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Members of the National Association of Flower Arranging Societies dress the grave in flowers from the four nations including lilies, heather and roses. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Oli Scarff/Getty Images)
STAFFORD, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: A view of the Shot at Dawn Memorial at The National Memorial Arboretum on August 4, 2014 in Stafford, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Dan Kitwood/Getty Images)
STAFFORD, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: A view of the Shot at Dawn Memorial at The National Memorial Arboretum on August 4, 2014 in Stafford, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Dan Kitwood/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: An oil lamp burns next to the 'Grave of the Unknown Warrior' in Westminster Abbey , which is decorated with flowers, ahead of a candlelight vigil attended by the Duchess of Cornwall this evening marking the start of Britain's involvement in the First World War on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Members of the National Association of Flower Arranging Societies dress the grave in flowers from the four nations including lilies, heather and roses. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Oli Scarff/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Edwardian cars line up ahead of Chelsea Pensioners taking part in the Great War centenary parade of Edwardian cars as on The Mall on August 4, 2014 in London, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Justin Setterfield/Getty Images)
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND - AUGUST 4: A wreath and message laid by Labour leader Ed Miliband,at the cenotaph in George Square to mark the centenary of the outbreak of World War One on August 4, 2014 in Glasgow, Scotland. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images)
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND - AUGUST 4: A former serviceman places a poppy at cenotaph in George Square, to mark the centenary of the outbreak of World War One on August 4, 2014 in Glasgow, Scotland. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images)
FOLKESTONE, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Harry attends the 'Step Short' commemorative event to unveil the Folkestone Memorial Arch, to mark the centenary of the First World War on August 4, 2014 in Folkestone, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Steve Parsons - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
FOLKESTONE, ENGLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Harry takes the salute as he attends the 'Step Short' commemorative event to unveil the Folkestone Memorial Arch, to mark the centenary of the First World War on August 4, 2014 in Folkestone, England. Monday 4th August marks the 100th anniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Eddie Mulholland - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Charles, Prince Of Wales attends a wreath-laying ceremony at the cenotaph in Glasgow to commemorate the centenary of the start of World War One on August 4, 2014 in Glasgow, Scotland. Monday 4th August marks the 100thanniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Danny Lawson - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND - AUGUST 04: Prime Minister David Cameron looks on as Prince Charles, Prince Of Wales signs a book during a memorial service at Glasgow Cathedral to mark the centenary of the outbreak of World War One on August 4, 2014 in Glasgow, Scotland. Monday 4th August marks the 100thanniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Russell Cheyne - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND - AUGUST 04: Prince Charles, Prince Of Wales leaves Glasgow Cathedral with the Lord Provost of Glasgow, Sadie Docherty, following the memorial service to mark the centenary of the outbreak of World War One on August 4, 2014 in Glasgow, Scotland. Monday 4th August marks the 100thanniversary of Great Britain declaring war on Germany. In 1914 British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith announced at 11pm that Britain was to enter the war after Germany had violated Belgium neutrality. The First World War or the Great War lasted until 11 November 1918 and is recognised as one of the deadliest historical conflicts with millions of causalities. A series of events commemorating the 100th anniversary are taking place throughout the day. (Photo by Russell Cheyne - WPA Pool /Getty Images)
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Huddled in their trenches on Christmas Eve, soldiers on both sides across the entire Western frontline celebrated the holiday as best as they could. Soon, all along the frontline combatants began to leave their trenches without their weapons, and meet enemy soldiers in no man's land.

What followed was an amazing episode for humanity; enemies who were just hours ago slaughtering each other at a level unseen in human history, were talking, singing, dancing, and eating together as if they were friends.

Christmas_Truce_1914Wikimedia Commons

In letters to newspapers and loved ones, soldiers describe how a spontaneous truce broke out.

"During Christmas Day our fellows and the Saxons fixed up a table between the two trenches and they spent a happy time together, and exchanged souvenirs and presented one another with little keepsakes," one British soldier wrote.

"I had a most extraordinary Christmas, and I have come to the conclusion that I would not have spent it out of the trenches for worlds," another British soldier said in a letter to loved ones. After establishing a truce, the soldier said that "in five minutes the ground between the opposing trenches was full of Germans and Highlanders exchanging cigars for cigarettes, and many other small luxuries."

In some places, soccer games were held in no man's land; sometimes against each other, and sometimes with mixed teams. "The regiment actually had a football match with the Germans who beat them 3-2," an officer in the Royal Army Medical Corps wrote in a letter to a friend in London.

Soldiers on both sides also buried their dead and had Christmas services as if they were in church.

1914 christmas truceWikimedia commons

Perhaps the best way to sum up the truce was said by a British soldier whose letter to the Carlisle Journal was published on January 5, 1915:

"All this talk of hate, all this firing at each other that has raged since the beginning of the war quelled and stayed by the magic of Christmas," he wrote. "It is a great hope for future peace when two great nations hating each other as foes have seldom hated, one side vowing eternal hate and vengeance and setting their venom to music, should on Christmas day and for all that the word implies, lay down their arms, exchange smokes and wish each other happiness."

"It speaks to the common humanity in the midst of war, and to the very best of who we are — which is one of those things that we recognize during the holiday season," Lora Vogt, the Curator of Education at the National WWI Museum and Memorial, told Business Insider.

A century after the war began, German and British soldiers still get together to play soccer and celebrate Christmas. Now they do so as allies; part of the hopeful peace that the soldiers of 1914 no doubt prayed for in the trenches on the Western Front. 

British and German troops play soccer, AfghanistanReuters

The National WWI Museum and Memorial has created an online exhibit with a massive collection of letters, some of which were used in this article. See the exhibit and read the accounts here >>

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