Some Las Vegas shooting victims may get shut out of donated funds

When Stephen Paddock opened fire on a concert crowd in Las Vegas on Oct. 1, he left 58 people dead and 546 injured. One of those wounded was Jasara Requejo. 

She was struck by bullets three times. One became lodged in her right arm. Another grazed her elbow, splitting it open. The third bullet hit her on the right side of her torso, narrowly missing major organs. 

More than two months later, she is receiving money through state disability but hasn’t been able to return to her job as a restaurant manager because of the elbow injury. But Requejo’s medical and living costs continue, and she estimates that she’s paid about $2,500 so far in co-payments for hospital visits ― money that has come out of her savings. And now, as she recovers from multiple gunshot wounds, she feels forgotten by those who vowed to help the victims.

Since the Las Vegas massacre, a total of about $16 million has been donated to the GoFundMe.com campaign, the National Compassion Fund and other platforms to help care for the injured. Nearly 90,000 people donated, along with MGM Resorts and some sports teams. The fundraising page said the donated money would be used for “relief and financial support” for Paddock’s victims, and Requejo, along with other victims, has been counting on that money to help pay her bills. 

RELATED: Las Vegas mass shooting survivors

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Las Vegas mass shooting survivors
Paola Bautista, 39, from Fontana, California, (R) sits in her hospital bed next to her sister Daisy Bautista at Sunrise Hospital & Medical Center after being shot at the Route 91 music festival mass shooting next to the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Lucy Nicholson
Braden Matejka, 30, (L) and his girlfriend Amanda Homulos, 23, from British Columbia, Canada sit outside Sunrise Hospital & Medical Center after he was discharged after being shot at the Route 91 music festival mass shooting next to the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Lucy Nicholson
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 4: Kassidy Owen, 22, left, and Taylor Schmidt, 21, both of Las Vegas, NV, are photographed on Wednesday, October 4, 2017, in Las Vegas, NV. Owen and Schmidt both survived the mass shooting on Sunday's evening. Sometimes I think it happened then the next second I say did that really happend,' Owen said. 'I keep hearing the shots in my head, people running and hear the ambulances,' she added. (Photo by Salwan Georges/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 4: Veteran Steve Charshafian, 59, speaks about Sunday's night mass shooting and recalls helping wounded people on Wednesday, October 4, 2017, in Las Vegas, NV. Charshafian survived the Route 91 Harvest Country Music Festival shooting with his wife when they hid inside their car. (Photo by Salwan Georges/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 04: Aaron Stalker is interviewed outside Dance Dynamics on Wednesday October 04, 2017 in Las Vegas, NV. Stalker helped to evacuate and care for victims during Sunday night's mass shooting at the Route 91 Harvest Festival. Aaron was attending a hockey game when his girlfriend, Stephanie Melanson called him from the concert. (Photo by Matt McClain/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS - OCTOBER 3: Jonathan Smith was shot at least twice while trying to run back and save others in the crowd at the Route 91 Harvest festival in Las Vegas. (Photo by Heather Long/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 03: Brian Hopkins, the lead singer of the band Elvis Monroe, is interviewed by a tv reported on the south end of the Las Vegas Strip on the on October 3, 2017, after the mass shooting that killed 59 people and inured more than 500 people at the Route 91 Harvest Festival near Mandalay Bay on October 1, 2017, in Las Vegas, NV. Hopkins took over 20 people into a freezer near the venue. Hopkins filmed himself during the shooting, still unsure of what the chaos was going on outside in the venue. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NEVADA - OCTOBER 2: With the presence of her family, Danny Alegria, from left, Evan Algeria and Lucy Alegria - Carmen Alegria recounts her harrowing experience surviving and escaping the mass shooting that killed 59 and injured more than 525 at the Route 91 Harvest Festival, in Las Vegas, Nevada, on Oct. 2, 2017. (Marcus Yam / Los Angeles Times via Getty Images)
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But now that a coalition of 17 community leaders, law enforcement officials, health care experts and others, all unpaid, is close to determining a process for applying for the money, Requejo is shocked to discover that, under a draft protocol, she would not be eligible to apply. The money instead is currently earmarked for survivors of the dead and people who were paralyzed, sustained permanent brain damage or stayed in the hospital at least one night. 

Since the shooting, the 37-year-old Stanton, California, resident has had surgery to remove the bullet from her arm and follow-up appointments to check a hematoma in her arm and get stitches removed from her elbow.

“They’re basically saying, ‘You’re not a big enough victim’ to me, and that’s disheartening,” she said. 

Not all of those who were physically hurt at the Route 91 Harvest Festival were shot. Missy Holmes, a 35-year-old resident of Chico, California, hurt her knee and ankle running from the sound of the bullets. She is still waiting for an MRI bill and is going to physical therapy for her injuries. Christine Caria, a 49-year-old resident of Summerlin, Nevada, was trampled in the panic. Caria now goes to physical therapy three times a week. She says she can’t sleep properly and hasn’t been able to return to work, and she’s started taking antidepressants. 

Scott Nielson, chairman of the Las Vegas Victims Fund Committee, says it has heard the concerns of people like Requejo and has since reconvened to consider changes to the draft. However, he still expects the committee to meet its deadline of Dec. 15 for finalizing eligibility and getting the information out.

RELATED: Donald and Melania Trump visit Las Vegas following music festival shooting

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Donald and Melania Trump visit Las Vegas following music festival shooting
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Donald and Melania Trump visit Las Vegas following music festival shooting
U.S. President Donald Trump and first lady Melania Trump depart for travel to Las Vegas, in the aftermath of the shooting there, from the South Lawn of the White House in Washington, U.S. October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Jonathan Ernst TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
Air Force One departs Las Vegas past the broken windows on the Mandalay Bay hotel, where shooter Stephen Paddock conducted his mass shooting along the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
U.S. President Donald Trump speaks at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department with first responders who reacted to the mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017.
U.S. President Donald Trump, with first lady Melania Trump, greets trauma center staff at the University Medical Center after meeting with victims in the wake of the mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque
U.S. President Donald Trump and first lady Melania Trump meet with police at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department in the wake of the mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. Las Vegas Location REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque
U.S. President Donald Trump and first lady Melania Trump step from Air Force One as they arrive in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S, October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque
U.S. President Donald Trump is greeted by Clark County Sheriff Joseph Lombardo as he arrives to meet with officials and first responders in the wake of the mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. Las Vegas Location REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque
U.S. President Donald Trump, with first lady Melania Trump, arrives to talk to reporters with University Medical Center Trauma Center Medical Director Dr. John Fildes (L), after meeting with victims in the wake of the mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque
U.S. President Donald Trump is greeted by survivor family members Shelby Stalker and Stephanie Melanson (L) after meeting with Las Vegas Mayor Carolyn Goodman (C) and police at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department in the wake of the mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque
U.S. President Donald Trump speaks next to first lady Melania Trump after meeting with police at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department in the wake of the mass shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque
Air Force One departs Las Vegas past the broken windows on the Mandalay Bay hotel where shooter Stephen Paddock conducted his mass shooting along the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 4, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 4: President Donald Trump, joined by first lady Melania Trump and medical staff, speaks to reporters at University Medical Center, October 4, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Trump is scheduled to visit with victims and first responders from Sunday night's mass shooting during his trip to Las Vegas. (Photo by Drew Angerer/Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 4: President Donald Trump and Clark County Sheriff Joe Lombardo greet a room full of police officers and first responders at Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department headquarters, October 4, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Trump is scheduled to visit with victims and first responders from Sunday night's mass shooting during his trip to Las Vegas. (Photo by Drew Angerer/Getty Images)
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He encouraged people to continue giving to the fund so that it might cover more people, but he also said the committee is trying to balance the needs of the large number of victims against the urgency of survivors’ financial pressures.

“In terms of adopting a protocol, we need to move this process along,” Nielson said. “One of the main themes of comments we’ve received is, ‘Please distribute funds to us as quickly as you can. We need help.’” 

Mass shooting victims have few options for financial redress 

In the wake of mass shootings and terrorist attacks, Americans and people around the globe have come together to raise money for victims. Such funds were created after the Boston Marathon bombing, the Virginia Tech shooting, the Aurora theater shooting and Pulse nightclub massacre, to name a few. 

Anyone who donated money to the Las Vegas Victims Fund may have imagined that their small contribution would help people like Requejo, who was shot multiple times and hasn’t been able to return to work. But what many donors don’t realize is that somebody has to decide how to divide and disburse all that money ― and that there will always be victims who feel left out. 

These funds are generally collected by municipal leaders. Then a coalition of community members, victims’ advocacy groups and lawyers draw up the criteria for eligibility. Typically, people with psychological injuries are left out completely, leaving them struggling financially if they have to get treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder or other psychiatric issues. And some funds, like the one after the Aurora theater shooting, take an approach similar to the Las Vegas fund and allow only those who stayed in the hospital overnight to collect money. 

The generosity of the criteria always boils down to two things: How much money is there? And how many potential victims are there? 

About 22,000 people attended the Harvest Festival at its peak that weekend. Paddock killed 58 people, and at least 546 people were physically injured either by bullets or from running and hiding. While the fund raised millions of dollars, diluting the pool to cover the dead, the physically injured and those with emotional wounds might make payouts too small to be meaningful, according to experts who have experience in administering these funds.

RELATED: Blood donors from around world line up to help Las Vegas victims

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Blood donors from around world line up to help Las Vegas victims
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Blood donors from around world line up to help Las Vegas victims
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: Las Vegas Residents line up around United Blood Services to donate after the mass shooting in Las Vegas , on October 02, 2017 in Las Vegas, NV. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
United Blood Services donor recruiter Laura Alvarado speaks to reporters at a blood donor clinic following a mass shooting at the Route 91 music festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. Photo taken October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Lisa Girion
A sign asking for blood donations on a marquee is shown following a mass shooting at the Route 91 music festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. Photo taken October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Lisa Girion
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: People wait in line at United Blood Services to donate blood for the victims of the Route 91 Harvest country music festival, October 2, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Stephen Paddock, 64, of Mesquite, Nevada allegedly opened fire on festival attendees from his room in the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino leaving at least 58 dead and over 500 injured before reportedly killing himself. (Photo by Denise Truscello/Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: People wait in line at United Blood Services to donate blood for the victims of the Route 91 Harvest country music festival, October 2, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Stephen Paddock, 64, of Mesquite, Nevada allegedly opened fire on festival attendees from his room in the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino leaving at least 58 dead and over 500 injured before reportedly killing himself. (Photo by Denise Truscello/Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: People wait in line at United Blood Services to donate blood for the victims of the Route 91 Harvest country music festival, October 2, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Stephen Paddock, 64, of Mesquite, Nevada allegedly opened fire on festival attendees from his room in the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino leaving at least 58 dead and over 500 injured before reportedly killing himself. (Photo by Denise Truscello/Getty Images)
Hundreds of people queue to donate blood following the mass shooting at the Route 91 music festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: United States Senator Dean Heller (left) donates blood at the United Blood Services in Northwest Las Vegas, NV on October 2, 2017, after a mass shooting at the Route 91 Harvest Festival near Mandalay Bay on October 1, 2017, in Las Vegas, NV. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: Pallets of donated water and sports drinks at United Blood Services in Northwest Las Vegas, NV on October 2, 2017, after a mass shooting at the Route 91 Harvest Festival near Mandalay Bay on October 1, 2017, in Las Vegas, NV. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
Hundreds of people queue to donate blood following the mass shooting at the Route 91 music festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: Taylor Benge signing in at United Blood Services. Benge was at the concert with his sister. , on October 02, 2017 in Las Vegas, NV. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: Las Vegas residents donate blood at United Blood Services in Northwest Las Vegas, NV on October 2, 2017, after a mass shooting at the Route 91 Harvest Festival near Mandalay Bay on October 1, 2017, in Las Vegas, NV. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: Jeff Evans helping with trash detail at United Blood Services as he waits to donate blood. Evans has a friend who was shot in the leg at the event , on October 02, 2017 in Las Vegas, NV. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 02: Las Vegas Resident Amanda Long donates snacks and water at United Blood Services in Northwest Las Vegas, NV on October 2, 2017, after a mass shooting at the Route 91 Harvest Festival near Mandalay Bay on October 1, 2017, in Las Vegas, NV. Long, who missed the event for the first time in years, was woken up by family members calling from Alaska. She has about a dozen friends that attended the concert who she has not heard from. (Photo by Doug Kranz/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images) Las Vegas
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People like Requejo have a handful of options for financial help after surviving a mass shooting. If they’re lucky enough to have health insurance, as she did, their medical care can be at least partially covered. Worker’s compensation could help, if they were working at the festival and then were injured on the job. Some people may have disability insurance or could qualify for federal Social Security Disability Insurance.

They could also apply to state-administered victim compensation programs, which are special pools of money funded by the fines and penalties that criminal offenders pay as part of a court order. Because Requejo is a resident of California but the crime happened in Nevada, she was eligible to apply for money in both states. So far she has received no final response from California’s program but has received a check for $700 from Nevada’s Victims of Crime Program. These funds, however, are typically thought of as a last resort and tend to cover specific funeral, counseling or medical bills.

Requejo said the Nevada check arrived “with no explanation.”

The gun industry is shielded from liability 

Victims of mass shootings often have to piece together financial support from several sources, and there is no guarantee they’ll get enough to cover what can be debilitating medical costs and lost wages. 

Stanford Law School professor Nora Freeman Engstrom says the U.S. actually did have the chance to create a national fund for victims of mass shootings that might have streamlined this process.

In 2005, Congress passed the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act to shield gun manufacturers against liability for crimes committed with their products. Normally when the federal government shields an industry from lawsuits, they simultaneously create a compensation fund that allows people who would normally sue for damages to still get some redress for their injury. For example, after 9/11, the federal government passed a law to shield the airline industry from lawsuits related to the terrorist attacks but also created the 9/11 Victims Compensation Fund for those who were injured or survivors of those who lost their lives that day. 

“In some ways, we had our shot to create a compensation program, and it would have been at the same time we gave this very broad immunity to gun manufacturers,” Engstrom said. “But in the case of PLCCA, instead of taking with one hand and giving with the other, we just took.” 

Congress may have decided against establishing a compensation program for victims of gun violence because there was simply no need, said Timothy Lytton, a law professor at Georgia State University and editor of the book Suing the Gun Industry: A Battle at the Crossroads of Gun Control and Mass Torts. No lawsuit against a gun manufacturer over its product’s use in a violent crime has ever succeeded, which meant victims of gun violence were unlikely to win suits against gun companies, whether or not PLCCA was in place. 

There is new hope for victims who want to hold gun companies accountable for the carnage. A new legal argument from families of the Sandy Hook Elementary School victims in Connecticut holds that Remington, the manufacturer of the Bushmaster AR-15, may be liable for deaths and injuries on the grounds that it made a military-grade weapon available to a civilian population. Engstrom, along with other prominent tort law professors across the country, wrote an amicus brief on behalf of these families. 

RELATED: Around Las Vegas after the shooting

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Around Las Vegas after the shooting
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Around Las Vegas after the shooting
Las Vegas Boulevard remains closed near the mass shooing site at the Route 91 Harvest Country Music Festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
A man stands next to a bouquet of flowers along a pedestrian walkway looking towards where a mass shooing at the Route 91 Harvest Country Music Festival took place Monday night on the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 3: Law enforcement vehicles gather near one of the entrance points to the concert venue where Sunday night's mass shooting, October 3, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The gunman, identified as Stephen Paddock, 64, of Mesquite, Nevada, allegedly opened fire from a room on the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino on the music festival, leaving at least 58 people dead and over 500 injured. According to reports, Paddock killed himself at the scene. The massacre is one of the deadliest mass shooting events in U.S. history. (Photo by Drew Angerer/Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, NV - OCTOBER 3: Las Vegas Blvd. remained closed to vehicular traffic near the scene of Sunday night's mass shooting, October 3, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The gunman, identified as Stephen Paddock, 64, of Mesquite, Nevada, allegedly opened fire from a room on the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino on the music festival, leaving at least 58 people dead and over 500 injured. According to reports, Paddock killed himself at the scene. The massacre is one of the deadliest mass shooting events in U.S. history. (Photo by Drew Angerer/Getty Images)
Las Vegas Boulevard lights-up with with signs for the victims and first responders after a mass shooing at the Route 91 Harvest Country Music Festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
Las Vegas Mayor Carolyn Goodman hosts a prayer vigil, in honor of those affected by the shooting on the Las Vegas Strip, in front of Las Vegas City Hall in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Las Vegas Sun/Steve Marcus
A churches cross is lit by fading daylight as it towers over the scene in front of the stage following a mass shooing at the Route 91 Harvest Country Music Festival on the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
People stand along a pedestrian walkway looking towards where a mass shooing at the Route 91 Harvest Country Music Festival took place last night on the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
Women walk down the Las Vegas strip after roads were closed near the site of the Route 91 music festival mass shooting outside the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Lucy Nicholson
Las Vegas Boulevard lights-up with with signs for the victims and first responders after a mass shooing at the Route 91 Harvest Country Music Festival in Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S., October 2, 2017. REUTERS/Mike Blake
Las Vegas residents Karen Stevens (L) and husband Mark Stevens attend a candlelight vigil at Las Vegas City Hall October 2, 2017, after a gunman killed at least 58 people and wounded more than 500 others when he opened fire on a country music concert in Las Vegas, Nevada late October 1, 2017. / AFP PHOTO / Robyn Beck (Photo credit should read ROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, USA - OCTOBER 02 : Mandalay Hotel is seen after a gunman attack in Las Vegas, NV, United States on October 02, 2017. At least 59 people were killed and more than 527 others wounded at a country music concert in the city of Las Vegas late Sunday night in the mass shooting. A gunman -- identified as Stephen Paddock -- opened fire on more than 10,000 concert-goers at an outdoor venue from across the Mandalay Bay Hotel at around 10.08 p.m. local time (0508GMT Monday), Clark County Sheriff Joseph Lambardo from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD) told reporters. (Photo by Bilgin S. Sasmaz/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
LAS VEGAS, USA - OCTOBER 02: Police block the roads leading to the Mandalay Hotel (background) and inspect the site after a gunman attack in Las Vegas, NV, United States on October 02, 2017. At least 59 people were killed and more than 527 others wounded at a country music concert in the city of Las Vegas late Sunday night in the mass shooting. A gunman -- identified as Stephen Paddock -- opened fire on more than 10,000 concert-goers at an outdoor venue from across the Mandalay Bay Hotel at around 10.08 p.m. local time (0508GMT Monday), Clark County Sheriff Joseph Lambardo from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD) told reporters. (Photo by Bilgin S. Sasmaz/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
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Sandy Hook families are still waiting on the Connecticut Supreme Court’s decision about whether the case should proceed. If they are eventually successful against Remington ― an outcome that could take years to reach ― it could provide a small opening for other victims of gun violence to find some measure of financial relief for their medical bills, as well as the injuries, pain, suffering and terror they experienced. But legal experts, including Engstrom, are doubtful that any judgment found against Remington would prompt Congress to establish some kind of victims’ compensation fund for the survivors of gun violence. 

Requejo sees no need for the government to get involved. Her problem with the Las Vegas Victims Fund boils down to raised expectations. Because Clark County, GoFundMe.com and others promoted the crowdfunding effort as a “victims” fund, then the money should go to all victims, regardless of the degree of the injury, Requejo argues. 

“To be honest, if nobody had set up a GoFundMe, we wouldn’t even be having this conversation,” she said. “Each of us would have set up our own, and our family and friends would have come together, and I think we would have been OK with that.”

And, in fact, a family friend has since established a personal GoFundMe site for Requejo. So far she has raised $8,470 of her $10,000 goal. 

There are also other avenues of litigation, with the most obvious target being the estate of the shooter. But, even though he was a millionaire, there’s no way Paddock’s estate could cover the costs of all the survivors, said David Studdert, a tort law professor at Stanford. 

Currently, victims have filed lawsuits against concert promoter Live Nation, CSC Security and MGM Grand Resorts, which owns the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino, from which Paddock shot his gun, and the concert venue that hosted the Route 91 Harvest Festival. It’s unclear how successful those lawsuits will be. Studdert and other tort law experts are waiting to see what comes of the legal action but acknowledges that victims may be in for more disappointment. 

“The hard truth is that in many instances, there isn’t a negligent party that’s capable of paying out those monies,” Studdert said. “Certainly the shooter is both criminally and negligently responsible for the death, but the shooter’s estate is not going to have money to compensate hundreds of people.”

  • This article originally appeared on HuffPost.
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