Major federal climate report rebuts everything Trump administration has said about climate change

Global warming is real. It's happening because of human activities, and it's on the cusp of pushing the climate toward tipping points or other "unforeseen consequences" that could reshape the planet as we know it, warns a new federal report released on Friday. 

The report, part of the Fourth National Climate Assessment, is mandated by Congress and has undergone extensive peer review by the National Academy of Sciences, various federal agencies, and the public. It's the most up-to-date climate science report since the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's last report was issued in 2013, and it paints an increasingly dire picture of where the planet — and the U.S. in particular, is headed.

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U.S. President Donald Trump refers to amounts of temperature change as he announces his decision that the United States will withdraw from the landmark Paris Climate Agreement, in the Rose Garden of the White House in Washington, U.S., June 1, 2017. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 1: White House Chief of Staff Reince Priebus, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Scott Pruitt, and Vice President Mike Pence clap as President Donald Trump speaks about the US role in the Paris climate change accord in the Rose Garden at the White House in Washington, DC on Thursday, June 01, 2017. (Photo by Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
U.S. President Donald Trump refers to amounts of temperature change as he announces his decision that the United States will withdraw from the landmark Paris Climate Agreement in the Rose Garden of the White House in Washington, U.S., June 1, 2017. REUTERS/Joshua Roberts
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 1: White House chief strategist Stephen Bannon walks out after President Donald Trump speaks about the US role in the Paris climate change accord in the Rose Garden at the White House in Washington, DC on Thursday, June 01, 2017. (Photo by Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 1: President Donald Trump speaks about the US role in the Paris climate change accord in the Rose Garden at the White House in Washington, DC on Thursday, June 01, 2017. (Photo by Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 1: President Donald Trump points as he walks back to the Oval Office after speaking about the US role in the Paris climate change accord in the Rose Garden at the White House in Washington, DC on Thursday, June 01, 2017. (Photo by Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 1: President Donald Trump speaks about the US role in the Paris climate change accord in the Rose Garden at the White House in Washington, DC on Thursday, June 01, 2017. (Photo by Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 1: President Donald Trump points out after speaking about the US role in the Paris climate change accord in the Rose Garden at the White House in Washington, DC on Thursday, June 01, 2017. (Photo by Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
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According to the report, global annually averaged surface air temperatures have increased by about 1 degree Celsius, or 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit, during the past 115 years. "This period is now the warmest in the history of modern civilization," the report states.

The last three years alone have been the warmest years on record for the planet since record keeping began, and have featured "record-breaking, climate-related weather extremes," many of which cost billions of dollars.

Contrary to the waffling of Trump administration officials, who have sought to portray climate change as real but the cause of global warming as up for debate, the dozens of scientists who wrote this report found no ambiguity about causality. 

RELATED: Climate change impact in Tangier, Virginia

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Climate change impact in Tangier, Virginia
A waterman sets out to set crab traps as the sun rises in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
A grave stone rests on the beach where a cemetery once stood but has been washed away due to erosion in an area called Canaan in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Mayor and waterman James Eskridge sets out to check his crab traps during the early morning in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Mayor and waterman James Eskridge feeds his cats as he checks on his soft shell crabs at his shanty during the early morning in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Waterman Tabby Crockett (L) sells his peeler crabs to Mayor and waterman James Eskridge in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Mayor and waterman James Eskridge's tattoo of the Jesus fish adorns his arm as he points out areas that have been completely eroded away in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
An abandoned outboard boat motor sits against the man-made sea wall that was engineered by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1999 to prevent erosion in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
The sun rises while a waterman passes crab shanties as he sets out for the day in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Mayor and waterman James Eskridge checks on his soft shell crabs at his shanty during the early morning in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
A cross stands at the mouth of the harbor reading 'Jesus is Life' in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Erosion eats away at the tip of the Uppards in an area called Canaan in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
A grave stone rests on the beach where a cemetery once stood but has been washed away due to erosion in an area called Canaan in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Four-year-old Parker Shores walks down the middle of the street with his action figure toys in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Teenage boys play baseball on a dirt lot in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Mayor and waterman James Eskridge checks on his soft shell crabs at his shanty during the early morning in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Danny Parks mans the fuel docks in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
A waterman returns to the harbor with crab traps in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
An area in the Uppards called Canaan where erosion has taken away what was once a settlement area with homes in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Army Corps of Engineers scientist Dave Schulte sits on the side of a boat as he rides out to check on current erosion to the Uppards in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Mayor and waterman James Eskridge (L) speaks with waterman Rudy Parks (R) from the crab shanties in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Mayor and waterman James Eskridge stands on the peir speaking with his son William Eskridge in the early morning before setting out for a day of crabbing in Tangier, Virginia, May 16, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Supports jet out of the water where crab shanties used to stand on a patch of land now surrounded by water in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
A boat line and the shell of a crab sit on the pier in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
William Eskridge pulls just caught crabs from a bucket in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Crab trap buoys hang from a fence in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
A crane flies away with a crab in its mouth in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
The water of the Chesapeake Bay crashes against the man-made sea wall that was engineered by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1999 to prevent erosion in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Waterman Bruce Gordy (R) talks with fellow waterman Allen Crockett (L), Frank Pruitt (2L), Robert Crockett (3L), Mayor James Eskridge (C) and Richard Pruitt (2R) during a meeting called 'The Situation Room' to discuss ongoing local concerns in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Benjamin Eskridge (L) carries a crab trap as he helps his grandfather Allen Crocket (R) prepare for the next day of crabbing in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
An abandoned crab trap rest on the beach surf in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
The sun sets on a cross reading 'Christ is Life' on a waterway in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
A submerged boats rests under a bridge in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
William Eskridge pulls just caught crabs from a bucket and his grandchildren look over his shoulder in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Waterman Richard Pruitt looks on a during a meeting called 'The Situation Room' held with other senior local waterman in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
Swamp grass and standing water take over the front yard of a home in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
The sun sets over houses on the West Ridge neighborhood in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
The sun sets in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
The sun sets on a guard rail where love letters have been scribed on a bridge in Tangier, Virginia, May 15, 2017, where climate change and rising sea levels threaten the inhabitants of the slowly sinking island. Now measuring 1.2 square miles, Tangier Island has lost two-thirds of its landmass since 1850. If nothing is done to stop the erosion, it may disappear completely in the next 40 years. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSON (Photo credit should read JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images)
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This contradicts the views espoused by President Donald Trump, his administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and heads of the Interior and Energy departments.

EPA administrator Scott Pruitt has said that it's not clear how much human activities, such as burning fossil fuels for energy, are causing climate change.

"I think that measuring with precision human activity on the climate is something very challenging to do and there's tremendous disagreement about the degree of impact, so no, I would not agree that it's a primary contributor to the global warming that we see," Pruitt said in an interview on CNBC, when asked whether it's proven that carbon dioxide was the main cause of global warming.

The report isn't exactly heartening

RELATED: Foods that could go extinct due to climate change

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Foods that could go extinct due to climate change

Avocados

There are many reasons why avocados are more expensive now than ever before, including a farmers' strike. But the biggest threats to avocados are rooted in environmental issues linked to climate change: hot weather and droughts have caused problems everywhere from California to Australia. Avocados are weather-sensitive and slow growing — making them especially susceptible to the effects of climate change. 

(Photo credit should read RONALDO SCHEMIDT/AFP/Getty Images)

Coffee

In September, a report from the nonprofit Climate Institute concluded that the area around the world fit for coffee production would decrease by 50% due to climate change. In addition to dealing with drought, climate change has made coffee crops more vulnerable to diseases like coffee rust, which have wiped out more than a billion dollars in crops. 

(Photo by Taylor Weidman/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

Beer

Warmer and more extreme weather is hurting hops production in the US, reports ClimateWatch Magazine. 

And droughts could mean less tasty drinks. Some brewers fear that a shortage of river water may force them to brew with groundwater — a change that the head brewer at Lagunitas said "would be like brewing with Alka-Seltzer," according to NPR. 

(Photo via Getty Images)

Oysters

Right now, climate change is actually helping oysters, as they grow faster in warmer waters. However, warmer waters also make oysters more susceptible to oyster drills, reports Seeker, citing a recent study in Functional Ecology

Drills are snails that attack and eat oysters. They're already a multi-million dollar problem for the oyster industry that could get worse thanks to warming water temperatures.

(Photo via Getty Images)

Maple syrup

Climate change is already shifting maple syrup tapping season and impacting the quality of syrup, according to Climate Central. Southern producers fear that eventually, areas like Virginia won't get cold enough for maple syrup production, even during the chilliest time of the year. 

(Photo via Getty Images)

Chocolate

Indonesia and Ghana, which have historically had ideal climates for growing cocoa beans, are already seeing decreased yields of cocoa. Chocolate companies, like Mars, have hired meteorologists to study the impact of changing weather patterns and attempt to reduce damage. 

"If climate conditions in these growing areas begin to change over time, it may influence both the supply and quality available of an ingredient that we use in our products," Katie Johnson, a senior manager on the commercial applied research team, told Business Insider in September. "Anticipating what the climate will be like 10, 20, or even 100 years from now is difficult, though the better we can understand what the different climate scenarios and risks to our supply chain are, the more prepared we can be in the future."

(Photo by Charlotte Lake / Alamy)

Lobsters

If ocean waters increase more than five degrees, baby lobsters may not be able to survive, according to research by the University of Maine Darling Marine Center and Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, the Guardian reported. 

The United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has said that the Gulf of Maine will reach that temperature by 2100. In other words, Maine's lobsters could go from a more than $330 million business to extinct in 84 years. 

(Photo via Getty Images)

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The new study includes updated estimates on sea level rise, and they're not comforting. The report finds that global average sea levels have risen by about 7 to 8 inches since 1900, but that about half that increase — 3 inches — has occurred just since 1993.

"Human-caused climate change has made a substantial contribution to this rise since 1900, contributing to a rate of rise that is greater than during any preceding century in at least 2,800 years," the report states. The relatively small increase in sea level has already resulted in a large increase of so-called "nuisance flooding" in more than a dozen Atlantic and Gulf Coast cities, including Norfolk, Virginia and Miami.

The report projects that future sea level rise will amount to "at least several inches in the next 15 years" and 1 to 4 feet by 2100. The report's authors caution that an increase of as high as 8 feet by the year 2100 "cannot be ruled out," particularly if the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets prove more sensitive to global warming than currently expected.

RELATED: Climate change in Norway

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Svalbard islands in Norway.

(Photo by: Hermes Images/AGF/UIG via Getty Images)

A view of the Blomstrand Glacier, on June 16, 2016, in Ny-Alesund, Norway. US Secretary of State John Kerry and Norwegian Foreign Minister Borge Brende toured the glacier, and made remarks about climate change. Kerry is visiting Norway's extreme north to view areas impacted by climate change with melting ice and the opening of new sea lanes.

(EVAN VUCCI/AFP/Getty Images)

Sunlight shines just after midnight on a fjord near the Norwegian Arctic town of Longyearbyen, April 26, 2007. The sea water is normally frozen solid at this time of year but global warming may be warming the region.

(REUTERS/Francois Lenoir)

Wild reindeer forage for food on the island of Spitsbergen on the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic circle as the Norwegian islands enter summer 'midnight sun' season.

(Ben Birchall/PA Archive)

US Secretary of State John Kerry (L) and Norwegian Foreign Minister Borge Brende (C) make a tour of the Blomstrand Glacier on June 16, 2016, in Ny-Alesund, Norway. Kerry is visiting Norway's extreme north to view areas impacted by climate change with melting ice and the opening of new sea lanes.

(LARSEN, HOEKON MOSVOLD/AFP/Getty Images)

A reindeer walks on snow on June 4, 2010 in Ny-Alesund in the Svalbard archipelago.

(MARTIN BUREAU/AFP/Getty Images)

Dutch scientist Appy Sluijs enters a cave at the bottom of the Longyearbyen glacier April 25, 2007 which has been shrinking fast in recent years. Many experts link the thaw to global warming.

(REUTERS/Francois Lenoir)

Svalbard islands in Norway.

(Photo by: Hermes Images/AGF/UIG via Getty Images)

Screen grab from video I shot shows UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon pointing towards glaciers in the distance as Kim Holmen, research director at the Norwegian Polar Institute, shows the UN chief around the atmospheric measuring station in Ny-Aalesund, a climate change research station on the Norwegian island of Svalbard 0n September1, 2009. Ban is on a two-day trip to the Arctic Circle to see first-hand the effects of climate change ahead of key international climate talks in Copenhagen in December.

(JACQUELINE PIETSCH/AFP/Getty Images)

A reindeer is pictured on June 4, 2010 in Ny-Alesund in the Svalbard archipelago.

(MARTIN BUREAU/AFP/Getty Images)

The sun shines low in the sky just after midnight over a frozen coastline near the Norwegian Arctic town of Longyearbyen, April 26, 2007. The sea water is normally frozen solid at this time of year but global warming may be warming the region.

(REUTERS/Francois Lenoir)

Svalbard islands in Norway.

(Photo by: Hermes Images/AGF/UIG via Getty Images)

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Compared to the previous National Climate Assessment, which was issued in 2014, this report contains more details on how extreme weather and climate events are changing nationwide. In general, it found that heavy rainfall is "increasing in intensity and frequency" across the U.S., though the increases are highest in the Northeast.

Heatwaves have also become more frequent since the 1960s, which is consistent with expectations from a warming climate, the report found.

According to the report, between 2021 and 2050, annual average temperatures in the U.S. are expected to rise by about 2.5 degrees Fahrenheit, relative to the period from 1976 to 2005.

The report contains new warnings that the course of climate change beyond the year 2100 will depend on choices made in the next decade or two since the magnitude of climate change will depend on the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted.

RELATED: Vatican projects endangered species and climate change

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VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: Images are projected onto the walls of St Peter's Basilica during a light Installation at St. Peter's Square on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. The public art projection 'Fiat Lux: Illuminating Our Common Home' featured images of humanity and climate change to celebrate the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy. (Photo by Ernesto Ruscio/Getty Images)
A picture is projected on St. Peters Basilica during the show Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home, on December 8, 2015 at the Vatican. Images by some of the world's greatest environmental photographers, including Sebastião Salgado, Joel Sartore, Yann Arthus-Bertrand and Louie Schwartzberg, are projected in solidarity with COP21 talks in Paris. It is also part of the inauguration of the Roman Catholic Churchs yearlong Jubilee of Mercy, which starts today. AFP PHOTO / TIZIANA FABI / AFP / TIZIANA FABI (Photo credit should read TIZIANA FABI/AFP/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: Images are projected onto the walls of St Peter's Basilica during a light Installation at St. Peter's Square on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. The public art projection 'Fiat Lux: Illuminating Our Common Home' featured images of humanity and climate change to celebrate the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy. (Photo by Ernesto Ruscio/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: Images are projected onto the walls of St Peter's Basilica during a light Installation at St. Peter's Square on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. The public art projection 'Fiat Lux: Illuminating Our Common Home' featured images of humanity and climate change to celebrate the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy. (Photo by Ernesto Ruscio/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: Images are projected onto the walls of St Peter's Basilica during a light Installation at St. Peter's Square on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. The public art projection 'Fiat Lux: Illuminating Our Common Home' featured images of humanity and climate change to celebrate the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy. (Photo by Ernesto Ruscio/Getty Images)
A picture is projected on the facade and the cupola of St. Peters Basilica during the show Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home, on December 8, 2015 at the Vatican. Images by some of the world's greatest environmental photographers, including Sebastião Salgado, Joel Sartore, Yann Arthus-Bertrand and Louie Schwartzberg, are projected in solidarity with COP21 talks in Paris. It is also part of the inauguration of the Roman Catholic Churchs yearlong Jubilee of Mercy, which starts today. AFP PHOTO / FILIPPO MONTEFORTE / AFP / FILIPPO MONTEFORTE (Photo credit should read FILIPPO MONTEFORTE/AFP/Getty Images)
A picture is projected on the cupola of St. Peters Basilica during the show Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home, on December 8, 2015 at the Vatican. Images by some of the world's greatest environmental photographers, including Sebastião Salgado, Joel Sartore, Yann Arthus-Bertrand and Louie Schwartzberg, are projected in solidarity with COP21 talks in Paris. It is also part of the inauguration of the Roman Catholic Churchs yearlong Jubilee of Mercy, which starts today. AFP PHOTO / TIZIANA FABI / AFP / TIZIANA FABI (Photo credit should read TIZIANA FABI/AFP/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: Images are projected onto the walls of St Peter's Basilica during a light Installation at St. Peter's Square on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. The public art projection 'Fiat Lux: Illuminating Our Common Home' featured images of humanity and climate change to celebrate the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy. (Photo by Ernesto Ruscio/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
A picture is projected on the cupola of St. Peters Basilica during the show Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home, on December 8, 2015 at the Vatican. Images by some of the world's greatest environmental photographers, including Sebastião Salgado, Joel Sartore, Yann Arthus-Bertrand and Louie Schwartzberg, are projected in solidarity with COP21 talks in Paris. It is also part of the inauguration of the Roman Catholic Churchs yearlong Jubilee of Mercy, which starts today. AFP PHOTO / TIZIANA FABI / AFP / TIZIANA FABI (Photo credit should read TIZIANA FABI/AFP/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: An image is seen as it is projected on St. Peters Basilica's front side during the show 'Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home' on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. (Photo by Elisabetta A. Villa/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: Images are projected onto the walls of St Peter's Basilica during a light Installation at St. Peter's Square on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. The public art projection 'Fiat Lux: Illuminating Our Common Home' featured images of humanity and climate change to celebrate the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy. (Photo by Ernesto Ruscio/Getty Images)
VATICAN CITY, VATICAN - DECEMBER 08: Images are projected onto the walls of St Peter's Basilica during a light Installation at St. Peter's Square on December 8, 2015 in Vatican City, Vatican. The public art projection 'Fiat Lux: Illuminating Our Common Home' featured images of humanity and climate change to celebrate the beginning of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy. (Photo by Ernesto Ruscio/Getty Images)
A picture is projected on the facade and the cupola of St. Peters Basilica during the show Fiat Lux : Illuminating Our Common Home, on December 8, 2015 at the Vatican. Images by some of the world's greatest environmental photographers, including Sebastião Salgado, Joel Sartore, Yann Arthus-Bertrand and Louie Schwartzberg, are projected in solidarity with COP21 talks in Paris. It is also part of the inauguration of the Roman Catholic Churchs yearlong Jubilee of Mercy, which starts today. AFP PHOTO / FILIPPO MONTEFORTE / AFP / FILIPPO MONTEFORTE (Photo credit should read FILIPPO MONTEFORTE/AFP/Getty Images)
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It's possible that if the world does not rein in greenhouse gas emissions, there could be as much as 5 degrees Celsius, or about 9 degrees Fahrenheit, of warming by the end of this century. Already, the amount of carbon dioxide in the air has passed 400 parts per million, which last occurred about 3 million years ago, at a time when sea levels and air temperatures were far higher than today.

"Continued growth in CO2 emissions over this century and beyond would lead to an atmospheric concentration not experienced in tens to hundreds of millions of years," the report warns.

"There is broad consensus that the further and the faster the Earth system is pushed towards warming, the greater the risk of unanticipated changes and impacts, some of which are potentially large and irreversible."

Examples of such unforeseen changes include a shutting down or dramatic slowing of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, of which the Gulf Stream is a part, as well as the loss of huge portions of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets.

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