Black people not calling 911 over fears of police brutality

A recent study found that black people might not be calling 911 anymore over fears of police brutality.

The findings came after studying the effects of the 2004 killing of Frank Jude Jr. at the hands of Milwaukee police. Jude was being beaten by off-duty police officers who suspected him of stealing a police badge from a party, and when 911 was called, responding officers only joined in on the beating.

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It's one of the city's worst examples of police brutality, and it has deeply affected the trust that the black community has for law enforcement.

"Something like the Frank Jude case tears the fabric apart so deeply and de-legitimizes the criminal justice system in the eyes of the African-American community that they stop relying on it in significant numbers," the study's lead author Matthew Desmond told the Journal Sentinel.

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2004 killing of Frank Jude Jr.
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2004 killing of Frank Jude Jr.
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 18: Demonstrators in front of the Milwaukee County Courthouse April 18, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin protest the recent verdict of the three former police officers who were allegedly involved in the beating of Frank Jude Jr., a biracial man, on October 2004. An all-white jury acquitted the three white off duty officers of most charges on April 15. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 18: Hundreds of demonstrators march from the Milwaukee County Courthouse to the Federal Courthouse on April 18, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to protest the recent verdict of the three former police officers who were allegedly involved in the beating of Frank Jude Jr., a biracial man, on October 2004. An all-white jury acquitted the three white off duty officers of most charges on April 15. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 18: Hundreds of demonstrators march before the Milwaukee Municipal Courthouse on April 18, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to protest the recent verdict of the three former police officers who were allegedly involved in the beating of Frank Jude Jr., a biracial man, on October 2004. An all-white jury acquitted the three white off duty officers of most charges on April 15. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 18: Hundreds of demonstrators march from the Milwaukee County Courthouse to the Federal Courthouse on April 18, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to protest the recent verdict of the three former police officers who were allegedly involved in the beating of Frank Jude Jr., a biracial man, on October 2004. An all-white jury acquitted the three white off duty officers of most charges on April 15. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 18: A Protestor holds a photo of Frank Jude Jr. during a march from the Milwaukee County Courthouse to the Federal Courthouse on April 18, 2006 in Milwaukee to protest the recent verdict of the three former police officers who were allegedly involved in the beating of Frank Jude Jr., a biracial man, on October 2004. An all-white jury acquitted the three white off duty officers of most charges on April 15. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 18: Protestors shout outside the Milwaukee County Court House on April 18, 2006 in Milwaukee to protest the recent verdict of the three former police officers who were allegedly involved in the beating of Frank Jude Jr., a biracial man, on October 2004. An all-white jury acquitted the three white off duty officers of most charges on April 15. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 18: Hundreds of demonstrators in front of the Federal Courthouse on April 18, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to protest the recent verdict of the three former police officers who were allegedly involved in the beating of Frank Jude Jr., a biracial man, on October 2004. An all-white jury acquitted the three white off duty officers of most charges on April 15. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 15: Citizens carry signs and scream for justice in the downtown areaafter a verdict of not guilty came back on four of the five charges for the three former police officers who stood trial for the beating of Frank Jude Jr April 15, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following the verdict a group of citizens took to the streets around the court house to protest. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 15: Citizens scream for justice in front of the Milwaukee City Court House after a verdict of not guilty came back on four of the five charges for the three former police officers who stood trial for the beating of Frank Jude Jr April 15, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following the verdict a group of citizens took to the streets around the court house to protest. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 15: A citizen gesticulates towards a police man in front of the Milwaukee City Court House after a verdict of not guilty came back on four of the five charges for the three former police officers who stood trial for the beating of Frank Jude Jr April 15, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following the verdict a group of citizens took to the streets around the court house to protest. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
MILWAUKEE, WI - APRIL 15: Citizens scream for justice in front of the Milwaukee City Court House after a verdict of not guilty came back on four of the five charges for the three former police officers who stood trial for the beating of Frank Jude Jr April 15, 2006 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Following the verdict a group of citizens took to the streets around the court house to protest. (Photo by Darren Hauck/Getty Images)
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The study, called "Police Violence and Citizen Crime Reporting in the Black Community," found that 911 calls did not drop immediately after Jude's death but instead dropped after the Journal Sentinel ran the story along with an image of Jude's badly beaten and bloodied face.

After that, even controlling for crime and other such factors, calls dropped by 22,000, with 56 percent of the drop coming from the black community.

"That is a huge effect and it symbolizes that these are not isolated incidents because they don't have isolated effects, they have community-wide effects and those effects can actually make the city less safe by driving down crime reporting and thwarting public safety efforts," Desmond said.

What's more, at the same time calls were dropping, murders spiked, with 87 murders reported in the six months after Jude's death was reported.

More on incidents of police brutality

11 PHOTOS
Recent shootings by police and protests
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Recent shootings by police and protests
People march in protest to the fatal police shooting of Charleena Lyles, in Seattle, Washington on June 22, 2017. Police in Washington were under scrutiny after a pregnant woman was fatally shot by officers responding to a burglary call. Authorities said the 30-year-old victim, identified as Charleena Lyles, had called to report an attempted burglary at her apartment on the morning of June 18 and pulled a knife on the two officers, who shot and killed her. / AFP PHOTO / Jason Redmond (Photo credit should read JASON REDMOND/AFP/Getty Images)
SEATTLE, WA - JUNE 20: Chalk artwork is written on the ground at a memorial for Charleena Lyles at the apartment building in which she was killed on June 20, 2017 in Seattle, Washington. Officers from the Seattle Police Department shot and killed Lyles, a pregnant mother of four, on June 18. (Photo by David Ryder/Getty Images)
The car of Philando Castile is seen surrounded by police vehicles in an evidence photo taken after he was fatally shot by St. Anthony Police Department officer Jeronimo Yanez during a traffic stop in July 2016. Picture released June 20, 2017. Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension/Handout via REUTERS ATTENTION EDITORS - THIS IMAGE WAS PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. THIS PICTURE WAS PROCESSED BY REUTERS TO ENHANCE QUALITY. AN UNPROCESSED VERSION WILL BE PROVIDED SEPARATELY.
People hold signs in protest after a jury found St. Anthony Police Department officer Jeronimo Yanez not guilty of second-degree manslaughter in the death of Philando Castile yesterday, in Manhattan, New York, U.S., June 17, 2017. REUTERS/Bria Webb
Protesters hold placards against the killing of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile in Manhattan, New York, U.S., July 7, 2016. REUTERS/Bria Webb
People take part in a protest against the killings of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile during a march in New York July 7, 2016. REUTERS/Eduardo Munoz
NEW YORK, NY - DECEMBER 06: Demonstrators march through the streets protesting the Staten Island, New York grand jury's decision not to indict a police officer involved in the chokehold death of Eric Garner in July on December 6, 2014 in New York City. Protests are being staged nationwide after grand juries investigating the deaths of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and Eric Garner in New York failed to indict the police officers involved in both incidents. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
A protest sign showing and image of Ezell Ford as members of the 'Black Lives Matter' alliance stage protest outside the Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti's home as they try to force him to fire LAPD Police Chief Charlie Beck, in Los Angeles, California on June 7, 2015. The alliance have renewed protests after a recent report from an LAPD watchdog determined that the August 11, 2014 officer-involved shooting death of 25-year-old Ezell Ford in South Central was justified. AFP PHOTO/ MARK RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
Portland, United States - May 19: Protesters hold a banner during a demonstration for freedom and equality against police brutality and racism at the Portland Police Bureau's North Precinct in Portland, Ore., United States, on May 19, 2017, on what would have been Malcolm X's 92nd birthday. (Photo by Alex Milan Tracy/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
Portland, United States - May 19: Protesters hold signs during a demonstration for freedom and equality against police brutality and racism at the Portland Police Bureau's North Precinct in Portland, Ore., United States, on May 19, 2017, on what would have been Malcolm X's 92nd birthday. (Photo by Alex Milan Tracy/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
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