BOSTON -- Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen on Friday said the growth of economic inequality in the United States wasn't in keeping with American values and she hinted at a range of steps that could address it.
With global stock markets rebounding after frenzied selling, Yellen didn't comment on the volatility or on monetary policy. Instead, she ventured into a social critique rare for a U.S. central banker, focusing on the widening gulf between rich and poor.
%VIRTUAL-pullquote-The extent of and continuing increase in inequality in the United States greatly concern me.%"The extent of and continuing increase in inequality in the United States greatly concern me," Yellen told a conference sponsored by the Boston branch of the central bank.
"I think it is appropriate to ask whether this trend is compatible with values rooted in our nation's history, among them the high value Americans have traditionally placed on equality of opportunity."
The topic of income disparity has been addressed by Fed chairs before. But Yellen in her data-heavy speech went far down a prescriptive road, saying public spending can narrow gaps in education quality and help level the economic playing field.
"The United States is one of the few advanced economies in which public education spending is often lower for students in lower-income households than for students in higher-income households," she said. Yellen said relying on property taxes to pay for schools exacerbated inequality because more affluent areas could afford to spend more.
Jared Bernstein, a former top economic adviser to Vice President Joe Biden, said Yellen was "expanding the scope of the Fed in really positive ways."
"She is clearly trying to connect the micro to the macro," he said. "She wants to know how her work at 40,000 feet is playing out on the ground."
Income disparity has risen since the 2007-2009 recession. A Fed study published last month showed that from 2010 to 2013, income growth was concentrated among the richest 3 percent of U.S. families, who accounted for some 30 percent of all income.
Yellen, who has given major speeches on inequality for some two decades and who toured a hard-hit neighborhood of Boston on Thursday, said rebounding house prices have restored much wealth to those at the bottom.
But she cited several troubling trends, including the high cost of higher education and a slowdown in business formation that she said could hamper economic mobility. She also analyzed the role large inheritances play in "the fairly limited intergenerational mobility."
By some estimates, she said, "income and wealth inequality are near their highest levels in the past hundred years, much higher than the average during that time span and probably higher than for much of American history before then."
Josh Bivens, research director for the left-leaning Economic Policy Institute, called Yellen's speech "a pretty deep dive into some pretty specific policy issues," and unusual terrain for a Fed chair.
Yellen, who didn't take questions, said she aimed to provide a factual basis for further discussion and she sat in the audience to hear research on race and economic inequality.
Among the issues the Fed is debating is whether the country's long-term growth potential has declined, and what might increase it.
"It may be," said Bivens, "that even the bread and butter job of Fed chair is made harder by the rise of inequality and they are trying to alert people to that."
-With additional reporting by Howard Schneider in Washington.
Plenty of Americans live beyond their means but don percentt even realize it. A 2012 Country Financial survey found that more than one-half of respondents (52 percent) said their monthly spending exceeded their income at least a few months a year. Yet only 9 percent of respondents said their lifestyle was more than they could afford. Of the 52 percent who routinely overspend, 36 percent finance the shortfall by dipping into savings; 22 percent use credit cards.
Blowing your entire paycheck (and then some) each month isn percent an ingredient in the recipe for financial success. Neither is draining your savings or running up card balances. To rein in spending, start by tracking where the money goes every month. Try to zero in on nonessential areas where you can cut back. Then create a realistic budget that ensures you have enough to pay the bills as well as enough for contributions to such things as a retirement account and a rainy-day fund. Our household budget worksheet or an online budgeting site can help.
If you're like most folks, your savings habits could use some improvement. The personal savings rate in the U.S. is just 4.9 percent of disposable income, down from a high of 14.6 percent in 1975. Only about one-half of Americans (54 percent) say they have a savings plan in place to meet specific goals, according to a 2013 survey commissioned by America Saves, a group that advocates for better saving habits.
Saving needs to be a priority in order to build wealth. Begin with an emergency fund that can be tapped in the event of an illness, job loss or other unexpected calamity. A 2012 survey by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority found that 56 percent of individuals say they have not set aside even three months' worth of income to handle financial emergencies. Once your emergency fund is well under way, you can divert small amounts toward other goals, such as buying a home or paying for college. These six strategies can help you save more, no matter your income.
Americans have $846.9 billion in credit card debt alone. That's $7,050 per household, according to NerdWallet.com, a Web site that analyzes financial products and data. If you're only making minimum monthly payments on $7,050, it'll take 28 years and cost you $10,663 in interest before you're debt-free, assuming a 15 percent interest rate. And that only holds true if you don't make any additional charges.
Some debts can lead to financial success -- a mortgage to purchase real estate, a credit line to start a business or a student loan to fund a college education -- but a high-interest credit card balance usually doesn't. Pay down credit cards with the steepest rates as quickly as possible. Putting $250 a month toward that same $7,050 debt will retire it in three years and save you about $9,000 in interest versus making minimum payments. See Escape the Debt Trap for more strategies to chip away at what you owe.
Late fees, banking fees, credit-card fees -- the amounts might seem insignificant when taken individually. After all, an overdue library book or Redbox DVD might only run you a dollar. But if you're regularly paying penalties and fees, these charges can quickly eat a hole in your budget. Consider this: The average bank overdraft fee is $32.20, according to Bankrate.com, and the average charge for going outside your ATM network is $4.13. Late-payment penalties for credit cards can climb as high as $35.
So how do you avoid pesky fees? Read the fine print so you understand fee rules, and stay organized so you avoid breaching those rules. Here are 33 common fees you can avoid -- or at least reduce -- with just a bit of effort. With the extra cash, you can pay down debt or boost your savings.
Would you ignore a hundred-dollar bill on the sidewalk? Of course not. You'd bend over and pick it up. So why are you passing up other opportunities to get free money? If your employer matches employee contributions to a 401(k) but you're not participating in the retirement plan, then you're passing up free money. If you let rewards points from loyalty programs or credit cards expire, then you're passing up free money. If you claim the standard deduction on your tax return when you qualify for itemized deductions that could lower your tax bill even more, then you're passing up free money.
Believe it or not, there might even be free money out there that you forgot about -- or never knew of in the first place. There are more than $41 billion worth of unclaimed assets ranging from old tax refunds and paychecks to forgotten stocks and certificates of deposit being held by state agencies, according to the National Association of Unclaimed Property Administrators. Do a search on MissingMoney.com to find out if there are unclaimed assets that belong to you.
It's easy to focus on the present -- the bills you have to pay, the things you want to buy -- and assume you'll have time in the future to start saving for retirement. But the longer you wait, the tougher it will be to amass a sufficiently large nest egg. For example, if you wait until you are 35 to start saving for retirement, you'll have to set aside $671 a month to reach $1 million by age 65 (assuming an 8 percent annual return). But if you start at age 25, you'll need to save just $286 a month to hit $1 million by the time you're 65.
Even if you're creeping closer to retirement, it's not too late to start putting away money. In fact, Uncle Sam makes it easier for procrastinators to catch up on retirement savings. If you're 50 or over, you can contribute up to $23,000 annually to a 401(k) (versus $17,500 for those younger than 50). The contribution limit for older savers to traditional and Roth IRAs is $6,500 a year (versus $5,500 for everyone else). Use our Retirement Savings Calculator to figure out how much you need to save.
Does this sound like your investing strategy? You hear about a stock that is soaring, and you want to get in on the action, so you impulsively buy. But soon after, the stock starts tanking. You can't bear the pain of watching your shares decline further in value, so you immediately sell at a loss. As a result, you're wasting money rather than building wealth.
Unfortunately, many investors buy high and sell low because they follow the herd blindly into the latest hot stock. You can resist the urge to go with the crowd if you adhere to smart investing techniques. One such technique is dollar-cost averaging, a simple system of investing at regular intervals no matter what the market is doing. While it doesn't guarantee success, it does eliminate the likelihood that you're always buying at the top -- plus, it takes the guesswork and emotion out of investing. See the 7 Deadly Sins of Investing to learn how to overcome common missteps.
New stuff is nice, but it's often not the best investment. Take cars. Estimates vary, but some experts say a new vehicle loses 30 percent of its value within the first two years -- including an immediate drop as soon as you drive off the dealer's lot. According to Kelley Blue Book, the average vehicle is worth 44 percent less after five years.
If you're not comfortable buying something that someone else has owned, get over your hang-up because you're missing a big money-saving opportunity. Many pre-owned items can cost up to 50 percent to 75 percent less than the price you'd pay if you purchased them new. From designer jeans to college textbooks, here are 11 things that you should consider buying used because you often can find them in good or almost-new condition at a fraction of the price.
An early retirement is a dream for many, but calling it quits if you're too young has several potential drawbacks. For starters, you could incur a 10 percent early-withdrawal penalty if you tap certain retirement accounts, including 401(k)s and IRAs, before age 59½. (There are exceptions.) You can claim Social Security as early as age 62, but your benefit will be reduced by as much as 30 percent from what it would be if you wait until your full retirement age, which falls between 66 and 67 depending on your year of birth.
Health care is another big issue. You must be 65 to qualify for Medicare. In the meantime, without access to an employer-sponsored plan, you might have to pay a lot more out of pocket for individual coverage until you're eligible for Medicare.
And speaking of health, the longer you live in retirement, the more likely you are to outlive your nest egg. Let's say you make it to the age of 90. A $1 million portfolio evenly split between stocks, bonds and cash has a 92 percent likelihood of lasting until you turn 90 if you retire at 65, according to Vanguard. But retire at age 55 and the likelihood drops to 66 percent. Use our Retirement Savings Calculator to determine when you can really afford to retire.
This might be the single biggest obstacle on your path to riches. If you're not investing in continuing education, training and personal development, you're limiting your ability to make more money in the future. "Your own earning power -- rooted in your education and job skills -- is the most valuable asset you'll ever own, and it can't be wiped out in a market crash," writes Kiplinger's Personal Finance Editor in Chief Knight Kiplinger in 8 Keys to Financial Security.