Many people are shocked when they first find out how ridiculous the fees are in their 401(k) plan, but then they sit there and do nothing about it. They assume there's not much anyone can do about the choices and fees they are charged. But that's not exactly true.
While getting your company to change plan providers or upgrade mutual fund selections is often difficult, there are many different alternative places to stash your money in a tax-advantaged way. These options aren't a direct substitute for a 401(k), but they each have pros and cons worth considering if your 401(k) plan is just plain bad.
Roth and traditional IRAs. You won't get a company match here, and IRAs have much lower yearly contribution limits than 401(k)s, but you can invest in practically anything you want to within these accounts. Sometimes that can be dangerous if you are reckless, %VIRTUAL-article-sponsoredlinks%but you can also hold passive investments like the S&P 500 index for as low as 0.05 percent a year. That's seriously inexpensive.
529 plans. None of the earnings in these accounts will be taxed if used for qualifying educational expenses. And even if you end up having to pay the 10 percent penalty and ordinary tax rates when you withdraw the money because you simply saved too much, you already got years of tax-free compounded growth. Plus, many plans allow you to change beneficiaries, so the funds could be passed on from generation to generation until enough educational expenses are incurred that there are no tax consequences.
Health savings accounts. These are even better than 401(k)s from a tax standpoint, because money stashed in an HSA is tax deductible on your tax return and qualifying withdrawals for health expenses aren't taxed at all. You can use these accounts to pay for health expenses every year, but some people treat them as investment accounts. They pay for their health expenses out of pocket, and keep the money in the accounts invested for the long haul.
iBonds and EE savings bonds. These federal government bonds allow you to defer taxes for as much as 30 years (the maximum holding period of these investments). The other perk of these bonds is that there are no state taxes, so residents in high tax states can save quite a bit.
Get a side business and even more options open up. Solo 401(k)s, SEP IRAs and defined-benefit plans have generous yearly limits, but are only available if you have self-employment or side business income. In addition, you control who the provider will be, so spend some time comparing options to find the best choice that fits with your investment strategy.
If you maximize all your options you could put away 6 figures a year in tax-advantaged savings. Plus, your 401(k) probably isn't as bad as you think. While many plan choices can use some improvement, the automated savings feature and possible company match almost always make a 401(k) a great way for most people to save for retirement. Don't lose sleep over what you cannot control, and work on saving more.
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Are You Doomed If Your 401(k) Has Bad Fund Choices?
For the best chance of maintaining your lifestyle in retirement, aim to contribute 15% of your salary, including any employer match, to your 401(k) or other savings account throughout your career (see What's Your Retirement Number?). Most people fall short of that benchmark. The average employee contribution to a 401(k) is 6% to 8%.
Saving 15% may seem like lifting weights at the gym for several hours. Try it anyway, says Stuart Ritter, a financial planner and vice-president of T. Rowe Price Investment Services. "Kick your contribution level up to 15% for three months. At the end of the three months, you can lower it, if necessary." But rather than dipping back to single digits, go with 10% or 12%, he says. "People find they can settle on a much higher amount than they were contributing before."
Procrastination is another risk: With each year you neglect to save, you lose an opportunity to fuel your accounts and to let compounding keep the momentum going.
So powerful is the effect of saving early that you could have less trouble catching up if you take a several-year break-say, to pay for college-than if you wait until midlife to start. At that point, says George Middleton, a financial adviser in Vancouver, Wash., "the amount of money you have to put away can be ungodly."
Still, you can make headway, especially if your kids are grown and you have fewer expenses. Say you're 55, earn $80,000 a year and have nothing saved for retirement. You put the pedal to the metal by setting aside $23,000 in your 401(k) each year for the next ten years. That $23,000 combines the annual maximum for people younger than 50 ($17,500 in 2013) plus the annual catch-up amount for people 50 and older ($5,500). If your employer matches 3% on the first 6% of pay and your investments earn an annualized 7%, you'd amass $434,700 by the time you reached 65.
For some investors, a bad case of the jitters became a bigger derailer than the recession itself (see How to Learn to Love [Stocks] Again). "People got very nervous and became more conservative, so when the market came back up, they had less of their portfolio participating in the rally," says Suzanna de Baca, vice-president of wealth strategies at Ameriprise Financial.
You can get back in (and stay in) by investing in stocks or stock mutual funds in set amounts on a regular basis. Using this strategy, known as dollar-cost averaging, you automatically buy more shares at lower prices and fewer shares at higher prices-an antidote to market-driven decisions. Once you decide on your mix of investments, use automatic rebalancing to keep it that way, advises Debbie Grose, of Lighthouse Financial Planning, in Folsom, Cal.
Most financial planners recommend that your portfolio be at least 80% in stocks in your twenties, gradually shifting to, say, 50% stocks and 50% fixed-income investments as you approach retirement. But formulas don't cure panic attacks. "Set your risk at the level you're willing to withstand in a downturn," says Middleton.
Amassing hundreds of thousands of dollars for retirement is challenge enough, but parents are also expected to save $80,000 to $100,000 per kid to cover the college bills. In fact, half of parents don't save for college at all, and the average savings among those who do runs about $12,000, according to a 2013 report by Sallie Mae, the financial services institution. Faced with a shortfall, two-thirds of families say they would use their retirement savings to pay for their children's college education, if necessary.
Don't wait until your kid is 17 to discuss how much you'll contribute. Have a conversation early about how much you can afford to give, says Fred Amrein, a registered financial adviser in Wynnewood, Pa.
A Roth IRA can be one way to save for both college and retirement, although it won't get you all the way to either goal. You can contribute up to $5,500 a year ($6,500 if you're 50 or older) in after-tax dollars, and the money grows tax-free. You can withdraw your contributions for any reason, including college, without owing tax on the distribution. You will pay taxes on the earnings (unless you're 59 1/2 or older and have had the account for at least five calendar years), but you won't have to pay a 10% early-withdrawal penalty if you use the money for qualified higher-education expenses.
Leaving the workforce, even temporarily, deprives you of current income and makes it tougher than ever to save for retirement. You might even find yourself tapping your retirement accounts to cover day-to-day expenses. You'll owe taxes on distributions from a traditional IRA plus a 10% penalty if you're younger than 59 1/2.
The best way to avoid that dismal situation is to have an emergency reserve that covers at least six months or even a year of living expenses, says Jim Holtzman, a certified financial planner in Pittsburgh. He acknowledges, however, that "that's easy to recommend and hard to implement." Avoid further disaster by hanging on to health insurance: If you can't get coverage through your spouse, look into keeping your employer-based coverage through COBRA. You can extend that coverage for up to 18 months, although you'll pay the full premium plus a small administrative fee. As of January 2014, you'll also have access to coverage through state health exchanges.
Married couples who depend on each other's earning power need life insurance to cover the gaps when one spouse dies. You can get a rough idea of how much coverage you'll need on each life by calculating what you each contribute to annual living expenses and multiplying that amount by the number of years you expect to need it, says Steve Vernon, of Rest-of-Life Communications, a retirement consulting firm. (For advice on how to do a more precise calculation, see How Much Life Insurance Do You Need?)
If you have a pension, you'll have the option of choosing a single-life benefit, which ends at your death, or the standard joint and survivor's benefit, which pays less while you're alive but keeps paying (typically at 50% to 75% of the benefit) for the rest of your spouse's life. Your spouse is legally entitled to the survivor's benefit and must sign a waiver to forgo it. Don't be tempted by the higher-paying single-life option if your spouse will need the survivor's benefit later.
Decisions you make in claiming Social Security are similarly key. If you're the higher earner (typically, the man), "you will really help your spouse by delaying Social Security as long as possible," says Vernon. The benefit grows by about 6.5% to 8% a year for each year you delay after age 62, when you first qualify, until you reach age 70. If you die first, your spouse can qualify for a survivor's benefit up to the full amount you were entitled to, depending on the age at which she files.