Hollywood has made 'no progress' on diversity in over a decade, study finds

From inclusion riders to public protests, calls for diversity and inclusion in Hollywood have taken the limelight in recent years.

But, according to a report released Tuesday from the University of Southern California’s Annenberg Inclusion Initiative, they haven’t paid off.

The movie industry is still overly white and male both on- and off-screen, despite increasing public attention to the issue, the review― titled “Inequality in 1,100 Popular Films”― found. 

The researchers examined 48,757 characters in 1,100 films released between 2007 to 2017. They found that the percentage of female characters and characters from underrepresented racial groups have not significantly changed in over a decade.

There is more than twice the number of males than females on-screen, the report said. Though women comprise half the population, only 30.6 percent of all roles examined were female. From 2007 to 2017, the proportion of female roles increased by less than two percent, the report found. Women were also twice as likely to be sexualized on-screen than men, appearing in sexy clothing or in the nude.

Additionally, the findings revealed no statistically significant change in the percentage of non-white characters. White actors were cast in 70.7 percent of all speaking roles.

The report found a 6.9 percent decrease in white characters from 2007 to 2017, but the number fluctuated during that period. 

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HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Faye Dunaway (L) and Warren Beatty walk onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
TOPSHOT - US actress Frances McDormand delivers a speech after she won the Oscar for Best Actress in 'Three Billboards outside Ebbing, Missouri' during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Jane Fonda (L) and Helen Mirren walk onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Host Jimmy Kimmel speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: (L-R) Actors Frances McDormand, Sam Rockwell , and Leslie Bibb celebrate during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Allison Janney accepts Best Supporting Actress for 'I, Tonya' onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Jodie Foster (L) and Jennifer Lawrence speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Comedian Tiffany Haddish (L) and US actress Maya Rudolph present the Oscar for Best Documentary Short Subject during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark Ralston (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: (L-R) BB-8, actors Oscar Isaac, Mark Hamill and Kelly Marie Tran speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Comedian Jimmy Kimmel (L) and British actress Helen Mirren perform during the opening of the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Jennifer Lawrence attends the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Comedian Dave Chappelle speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Director Greta Gerwig (L) and US actress Laura Dern present the Oscar for Best Documentary Feature during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark Ralston (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Sam Rockwell (L) wins Best Suppoorting Actor for 'Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri' with Leslie Bibb at the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Comedian Jimmy Kimmel (C), Australian actress Margot Robbie, Kenyan actress Lupita Nyong'o and Israeli actress Gal Gadot interact with movie goers at the Chinese theatre during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Christopher Walken speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
A general view shows comedian Jimmy Kimmel delivering a speech during the opening of the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Mahershala Ali speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Actress Viola Davis arrives to present the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor/composer Lin-Manuel Miranda and actor Emily Blunt speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Actor Sam Rockwell accepts the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor in Three Billboards outside Ebbing, Missouri during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark Ralston (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Eiza Gonzalez (L) and Ansel Elgort speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: (L-R) Actors Ashley Judd, Annabella Sciorra and Salma Hayek speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Eva Marie Saint speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: In this handout provided by A.M.P.A.S., Lupita Nyong'o attends the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Matt Sayles/A.M.P.A.S via Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Taraji P. Henson speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Sam Rockwell accepts Best Suppoorting Actor for 'Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri' onstage at the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Jennifer Garner speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Actor Chadwick Boseman (L) and Australian actress Margot Robbie present the Oscar for Best Adapted Screenplay during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark Ralston (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Recording artist Sufjan Stevens performs onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor/singer Mary J. Blige performs onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
US actor Armie Hammer (L) and Israeli actress Gal Gadot present the Oscar for Best Makeup and Hairstyling during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark Ralston (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Singers Miguel (R) and Natalia Lafourcade perform onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Lakeith Stanfield speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Guests and nominees attend the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
US singer and actress Mary J. Blige performs during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Lupita Nyong'o (L) and Kumail Nanjiani speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Jennifer Lawrence attends the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Armie Hammer (L) and Gal Gadot speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Chilean director Sebastian Lelio (C) accepts the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film for 'A Fantastic Woman' during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Meryl Streep applauds in the audience the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Actress Rita Moreno arrives on stage to present the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Nicole Kidman speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
US singer Miguel (L) and Mexican singer Natalia Lafourcade perform during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Musician Common performs onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: In this handout provided by A.M.P.A.S., Sam Rockwell attends the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Matt Sayles/A.M.P.A.S via Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Filmmakers Rachel Shenton (C) and Chris Overton (R) accept Best Live Action Short Film for 'The Silent Child' from actors Tiffany Haddish and Maya Rudolph (both L) onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: In this handout provided by A.M.P.A.S., A view of the Oscars on display at the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Matt Sayles/A.M.P.A.S. via Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Emma Stone speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Matthew McConaughey speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Singer Andra Day performs onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Tiffany Haddish (L) and Maya Rudolph speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Actress Allison Janney holds her Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in 'I, Tonya' during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Gina Rodriguez and Tom Holland speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: In this handout provided by A.M.P.A.S., Miguel attends the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Matt Sayles/A.M.P.A.S via Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Oscar Isaac speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Mexican actor Gael Garcia Bernal performs during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Daniela Vega speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Filmmaker Frank Stiefel accepts Best Documentary - Short Subject for 'Heaven Is a Traffic Jam on the 405' onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Director Jordan Peele delivers a speech after he won the Oscar for Best Original Screenplay for 'Get Out' during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark Ralston (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor/singer Zendaya speaks onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Songwriters Kristen Anderson-Lopez (L) and Robert Lopez accept Best Original Song for 'Remember Me' from 'Coco' onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actor Matthew McConaughey (L) and editor Lee Smith, winner of Best Film Editing for 'Dunkirk,' walk offstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Screenwriter James Ivory accepts Best Adapted Screenplay for 'Call Me by Your Name' onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Filmmakers Rachel Shenton (L) and Chris Overton accept Best Live Action Short Film for 'The Silent Child' onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Musician Eddie Vedder performs onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: In this handout provided by A.M.P.A.S., Laura Dern (L) and Greta Gerwig attend the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Matt Petit/Getty Images)
Mexican director Guillermo del Toro delivers a speech after he won the Oscar for Best Director for 'The Shape of Water' during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: (L-R) Actor Helen Mirren with Oscar-winning costume designer Mark Bridges sitting on a Jet Ski (which he received as a prize for shortest acceptance speech) onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
Mexican director Guillermo del Toro (C) stand on stage with his cast and crew after he won the Oscar for Best Film for 'The Shape of Water' during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
US actress Keala Settle performs during the 90th Annual Academy Awards show on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California / AFP PHOTO / Mark RALSTON (Photo credit should read MARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images)
HOLLYWOOD, CA - MARCH 04: Actors Jane Fonda (L) and Helen Mirren speak onstage during the 90th Annual Academy Awards at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center on March 4, 2018 in Hollywood, California. (Photo by Kevin Winter/Getty Images)
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“There’s some years that the numbers increase by a few percentage points and then decrease and revert back … but 2017 looks really no different from 2016 and very similar to 2008,” Marc Choueiti, one of the co-authors, said. “Overall, we’re not seeing any change over time in a particular direction.”

In 2017′s top movies, 12.1 percent of characters were black, 6.2 percent Latino and 4.8 percent Asian.

Behind the scenes, women made up only 4.3 percent of all directors between 2007 to 2017. Despite the success of Patty Jenkin’s “Wonder Woman” and Sofia Coppola’s “The Beguiled,” the percentage of female directors in 2017 is not “meaningfully different” from 2007, according to the study. Less than 10 percent of directors were people of color.

Films are also lacking in LGBT representation, especially transgender characters. The researchers evaluated 4,403 characters for apparent sexuality. Of those, 31 were lesbian, gay or bisexual — less than one percent of the roles.

Characters with disabilities faced underrepresentation in Hollywood, as well, as they only comprised 2.5 percent of all speaking roles for the past three years.

To achieve diversity, the researchers recommended A-list actors include inclusion riders in their contracts, or provisions to hire underrepresented people for both on- and off-screen positions on the project. They also suggested film companies set specific inclusion goals and local governments look into providing tax incentives for diversity.

The damning report follows a period of reckoning in Hollywood this past year, including the Times Up and Me Too movements, which called attention to the industry’s sexual harassment and gender inequity. A few years ago, activist April Reign started the trending hashtag #OscarsSoWhite to protest the all-white slate of nominees for the awards. The online movement spurred the Academy to heavily recruit female and non-white members and to nominate more underrepresented groups.

“As much as there’s been a real groundswell of awareness and advocacy we have yet to really see that become something that really affects the way people in Hollywood are hiring and casting,” co-author Katherine Pieper said. “It’s important to keep the activism going and keep talking about how much more progress needs to be made.”

Despite Hollywood’s lack of diversity, 2018 has proven that movies featuring non-white leads can sell. “Black Panther” was a resounding success, garnering more than $1.3 billion at the box office, and “Crazy Rich Asians” is expected to attract a huge showing.

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  • This article originally appeared on HuffPost.
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