Women have never been nominated in one of the most important Oscar categories
But the analysis also exposes another, less-frequently discussed role in which women are deeply overshadowed: the cinematographer. In the Academy's 88-year history, not a single woman has ever been nominated for best cinematography, making it the only Oscars category that has only ever honored men, according to the tally by Women's Media Center.
Sometimes referred to as the director of photography, the cinematographer is arguably as important to a film as the director, dictating every motion of the camera, deciding what makes it into each frame, and ultimately controlling the look and feel of the movie. In other words, the cinematographer is responsible for what is often referred to as the film's "gaze," or the way it positions viewers to see each character from the particular perspective of the filmmaker.
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The concept of the male gaze, which refers to the visual perspective of a heterosexual man—traditionally the person operating the camera in Hollywood movies—was first explored by feminist film critic Laura Mulvey in a 1975 essay called "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema." In it, Mulvey posits that the male gaze "projects its phantasy [sic] on to the female figure which is styled accordingly." Essentially, she suggests that when woman are portrayed on screen as sexual objects, it's likely because the cinematographer is a heterosexual male, to whom the woman signifies desire.
Though much has changed in the decades since Mulvey penned her essay, the concept of the male gaze—and ideas about how to subvert it, mainly by supporting filmmakers who are not straight white men—has remained as relevant and widely-cited as ever.
"The male gaze, because the men are subjects, necessarily divides us, divides women into either/or—the Madonna or the whore, the slut or the good girl, or the many, many ways in which women are divided to be seen as objects when the male character is the subject," Transparent creator Jill Soloway said during a speech at the Women in Film awards last year. "That divide is kind of a wound that's realy harming our entire planet right now. The divided feminine is the issue." The solution is rather simple, in theory anyway: Women can bridge the divide, Soloway said, by picking up the camera and making movies.
But in practice, the challenges remain steep for female cinematographers looking to project their gaze in the mainstream industry. Women accounted for just 5 percent of all cinematographers on the 250 top-grossing films released in 2014, according to a study released last year by the Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University. Women's membership in the American Society of Cinematographers, the nearly century-old influential industry group, is even smaller, at just 4 percent.
Overall, women accounted for roughly 19 percent of all Oscar nominees in non-acting categories between 2006 and 2015, according to the Women's Media Center analysis. But several categories stood out as egregious examples of underrepresentation: Over roughly the last decade, women accounted for just 1 percent of nominees in visual effects, 2 percent of nominees for directing, 3 percent of nominees for sound mixing, and 6 percent of nominees for sound editing.
Oscar nominees were nearly equally split between men and women for production design/art direction and documentary short. Women dominated men, accounting for 73 percent of all nominees, in just one category: costume design. And yet, the percentage of men nominated in that category is still higher than the percentage of women nominated in all non-acting categories overall.
Some things about the esteemed awards season makes women proud:
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