US police get little training to handle crises with mentally ill
NEW YORK/CHICAGO, Dec 29 (Reuters) - Most U.S. police receive little or no training on how best to handle crises involving the mentally ill despite the growing frequency of such encounters and the fatal results in a number of recent cases.
Although more departments have added or expanded training in recent years as they faced greater scrutiny and litigation, the vast majority offer at best a maximum of 40 hours and are not reaching enough officers, according to police and mental health advocates.
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Last weekend's Chicago police slaying of 19-year-old college student Quintonio LeGrier, who relatives said had suffered from mental issues, has raised questions about the training of officers who are routinely thrust into tense situations with people who may be affected by varying mental disorders, or drug and alcohol abuse.
"We're asking the police to fill the gaps that have been created by inadequate mental health resources," said Ron Honberg, national director for policy and legal affairs at the National Alliance on Mental Illness.
"It seems sadly ironic, tragically ironic when you call 911 about someone having a heart attack, they send a trained EMT professional, but when you call about someone in a psychotic crisis, a psychotic episode, they send police," he added.
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The Chicago shooting also prompted calls from Mayor Rahm Emanuel for a review of the police department's Crisis Intervention Team and improved guidance for officers handling cases where the mental health of a person is a factor.
Mentally ill people have been shot to death in recent years by police in Texas, California, Colorado and Virginia. Americans with severe mental illness are 16 times more likely to be killed by police than other civilians, an advocacy group found.
'PSYCHOLOGISTS WITH GUNS'
With no national requirements on training recruits on de-escalation and crisis intervention, the average is just eight hours on each, according to a survey released in August 2015 by the Police Executive Research Forum.
"Society has turned police officers into psychologists with guns, and they don't have the training for that," said Scott Johnson, a Washington state attorney.
Johnson represents Ryan Flanagan, a veteran officer with the police department in Pasco, Washington, who resigned in July after he and two patrolmen fatally shot an unarmed Mexican orchard worker who battled depression, homelessness and drug abuse.
The 1987 killing of a mentally ill man in Memphis, Tennessee, led to the creation of the highly regarded Crisis Intervention Team, or CIT, program, which brings together law enforcement, mental health providers, hospital emergency departments and individuals with mental illness and their families.
About 3,000 police departments have received its intensive training. There are about 18,000 law enforcement agencies across the country.
Sam Cochran, a CIT trainer and retired Memphis police officer, recalled using some of the skills with a mentally ill man who was creating a disturbance.
"My first priority was to lower his voice," said Cochran, who covered his ears to indicate the noise hurt and then moved back from the man. "I could not outshout him, so I had to use the tone of my voice, which was very quiet, and my body language." (Reporting by Jilian Mincer in New York and Eric M. Johnson in Chicago; Editing by Peter Cooney)
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