We'd all like to invest like the legendary Warren Buffett, turning thousands into millions or more. Buffett analyzes companies by calculating return on invested capital (ROIC) in order to help determine whether a company has an economic moat -- the ability to earn returns on its money above that money's cost.
ROIC is perhaps the most important metric in value investing. By determining a company's ROIC, you can see how well it's using the cash you entrust to it and whether it's actually creating value for you. Simply, it divides a company's operating profit by how much investment it took to get that profit. The formula is
ROIC = Net operating profit after taxes / Invested capital
The nuances of the formula are explained in further detail here. This one-size-fits-all calculation cuts out many of the legal accounting tricks (such as excessive debt) that managers use to boost earnings numbers, and provides you with an apples-to-apples way to evaluate businesses, even across industries. The higher the ROIC, the more efficient the company uses capital.
Ultimately, we're looking for companies that can invest their money at rates that are higher than the cost of capital, which for most businesses is between 8% and 12%. Ideally, we want to see ROIC above 12%, at a minimum, and a history of increasing returns, or at least steady returns, which indicate some durability to the company's economic moat.
Let's take a look at CROCS (NAS: CROX) and three of its industry peers, to see how efficiently they use cash. Here are the ROIC figures for each company over a few periods.
1 Year Ago
3 Years Ago
5 Years Ago
Cherokee (NAS: CHKE)
Skechers USA (NYS: SKX)
Quiksilver (NYS: ZQK)
Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's.
*Because CROX did not report an effective tax rate, we used its 25% tax rate from 3 years ago.
**Because SKX did not report an effective tax rate, we used its 32% tax rate from 1 year ago.
***Because ZQK did not report an effective tax rate, we used its 26% tax rate from 3 years ago.
CROCS' returns on invested capital have fluctuated over the past 5 years, and are currently lower than they were 5 years ago. Still, they're reasonably high, and have grown over the past three years, suggesting the company's competitive position has improved. Two of the other listed companies have also seen fluctuations with a similar downward trend, although Cherokee's ROIC still sits at very high levels. Only Quiksilver's ROIC is currently higher than it was five years ago.
Businesses with consistently high ROIC show that they're efficiently using capital. They also have the ability to treat shareholders well, because they can then use their extra cash to pay out dividends to us, buy back shares, or further invest in their franchise. And healthy and growing dividends are something that Warren Buffett has long loved.
So for more successful investments, dig a little deeper than the earnings headlines to find the company's ROIC. If you'd like to add these companies to your Watchlist, click below:
Add CROCS to My Watchlist.
Add Quiksilver to My Watchlist.
Add Skechers USA to My Watchlist.
Add Cherokee to My Watchlist.
At the time thisarticle was published Jim Royal, Ph.D., does not own shares of any company mentioned here. Try any of our Foolish newsletter servicesfree for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe thatconsidering a diverse range of insightsmakes us better investors. The Motley Fool has adisclosure policy.
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