Is Donald Trump a billionaire? We have no way of knowing for sure

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Donald Trump has staked his presidential career, and perhaps the future of the Republican Party, on the claim that he is a billionaire who has succeeded wildly at business. But is it true - is Trump, in fact, a billionaire? A noted Trump biographer, who has spent much of his career as an investigative journalist covering Trump in one venue or another, has his doubts.

"There is no verifiable evidence that Trump is a billionaire; none," David Cay Johnston said Sunday in a series of tweets about Trump, whom he has written about in his new book, "The Making of Donald Trump."

Johnston's book uses thousands of pages of publicly available documents to make the case that Trump has wildly over-exaggerated his net worth. It connects the dots on Trump's financial career spanning more than 30 years, allowing Johnston to conclude that there is no basis upon which anyone can verify if Trump is, in fact, a billionaire. Johnston questions the net worth of his signature golf properties as well as his ownership in real estate development deals where he simply licensed his name instead of actually owning a piece of the deal.

Johnston, a veteran of The New York Times, painstakingly walks through several examples in his book of Trump properties that the GOP presidential nominee claimed were worth in excess of $50 million in order to justify his claim to be a billionaire. In each case, Trump or his staff have claimed in tax filings or court cases that they were worth just a fraction of what he claimed in the Personal Disclosure Form that he filed with the Federal Election Commission in order to run for president.

RELATED: Here's how much each past president is worth:

44 PHOTOS
Ranking the US presidents by net worth
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Ranking the US presidents by net worth
42. Harry S. Truman: <$1 million

33rd President (1945-1953)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

41. Calvin Coolidge: <$1 million

30th President (1923-1929)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

40. Woodrow Wilson: <$1 million

28th President (1913-1921)

(Photo by JHU Sheridan Libraries/Gado/Getty Images)

39. Chester A. Arthur: <$1 million

21st President (1881-1885)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

38. James A. Garfield: <$1 million

20th President (1881-1881)

(Photo by National Archive/Newsmakers)

37. Ulysses S. Grant: <$1 million

18th President (1869-1877)

(Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector/Getty Images)

36. Andrew Johnson: <$1 million 

17th President (1865-1869)

(Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector/Getty Images)

35. Abraham Lincoln: <$1 million

16th President (1861-1865)

(Photo by Smith Collection/Gado/Getty Images).

34. James Buchanan: <$1 million

15th President (1857-1861)

(Photo by Stock Montage/Stock Montage/Getty Images)

33. Warren G. Harding: $1 million

29th President (1921-1923)

(Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images)

32. William McKinley: $1 million

25th President (1897-1901)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

31. Franklin Pierce: $2 million

14th President (1853-1857)

(Photo by National Archive/Newsmakers)

30. William Howard Taft: $3 million

27th President (1909-1913)

(Photo by: Liverani/Andia/UIG via Getty Images)

29. Rutherford B. Hayes: $3 million

19th President (1877-1881)

(Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

28. Millard Fillmore: $4 million

13th President (1850-1853)

(Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images)
27. Benjamin Harrison: $5 million

23rd President (1889-1893)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

26. William Henry Harrison: $5 million

9th President (1841-1841)

(Photo by National Archive/Newsmakers)

25. Zachary Taylor: $6 million 

12th President (1849-1850)

(Photo by Bettman via Getty Images)

24. Jimmy Carter: $7 million

39th President (1977-1981)

(Photo by Universal History Archive/Getty Images)

23. Gerald Ford: $7 million

38th President (1974-1977)

(Photo via Bettman via Getty Images)

22. Barack Obama: $7 million

44th President (2009-present)

(Photo by Oscar Gonzalez/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

21. Dwight Eisenhower: $8 million

34th President (1953-1961)

(Photo by Library of Congress/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images)

20. James K. Polk: $10 million

11th President (1845-1849)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

19. Ronald Reagan: $13 million

40th President (1981-1989)

(Photo by Harry Langdon/Getty Images)

18. Richard Nixon: $15 million

37th President (1969-1974)

(Photo by Keystone-France\Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images)

17. John Adams: $19 million

2nd President (1797-1801)

(Photo by Stock Montage/Stock Montage/Getty Images)

16. George W. Bush: $20 million

43rd President (2001-2009)

(Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)

15. John Quincy Adams: $21 million

6th President (1825-1829)

(Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

14. George H. W. Bush: $23 million

41st President: (1989-1993)

(Photo by David Hume Kennerly/Getty Images)

13. Grover Cleveland: $25 million

22nd and 24th President (1885-1889) and (1893-1897)

(Photo by Library of Congress/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images)

12. Martin Van Buren: $26 million 

8th President: (1837-1841)

(Photo by Stock Montage/Stock Montage/Getty Images)

11. James Monroe: $27 million

5th President (1817-1825)

(Photo by: Getty Images)

10. John Tyler: $51 million

10th President (1841-1845)

(Photo by National Archive/Newsmakers)

9. Bill Clinton: $55 million

42nd President (1993-2001)

(Photo Bettmann via Getty Images)

8. Franklin D. Roosevelt: $60 million

32nd President (1933-1945)

(Photo by VCG Wilson/Corbis via Getty Images)

7. Herbert Clark Hoover: $75 million

31st President (1929-1933)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

6. Lyndon Johnson: $98 million

36th President: (1963-1969)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

5. James Madison: $101 million

4th President (1809-1817)

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

4. Andrew Jackson: $119 million

7th President (1829-1837)

(Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

3. Theodore Roosevelt: $125 million

26th President (1901-1909)

(Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

2. Thomas Jefferson: $212 million

3rd President (1801-1809)

(Photo by Kean Collection/Getty Images)

1. George Washington: $525 million

1st President (1789-1797)

(Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

1.* John F. Kennedy: $1 billion 

35th President (1961-1963)

*Had he lived, JFK would have inherited $1 billion from his father. 

(Photo via Bettmann via Getty Images)

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It is virtually impossible to determine any sort of objective truth in all of this from the only document that Trump has ever released publicly – the FEC personal disclosure form that is entirely self-reported. That FEC document contains only what Trump says, or believes, is true about his net worth.

That sort of vagueness has led other successful businessmen, such as Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban, to wonder aloud whether Trump is really a billionaire.

"He's good at that (putting his name on hotels and buildings in licensing deals). Whether or not that's made him a billionaire, I don't know," Cuban told BuzzFeed News this summer. "He's not transparent enough for us to actually know."

An exhaustive report in TheNew York Times this fall showed that at least some of Trump's signature real estate properties were either straight name-licensing deals, or leases. Trump didn't own the buildings. Johnston concurs.

On his FEC disclosure form, Trump listed hundreds of corporate and legal entities (e.g., LLCs) that bear his name. But there is no way to discern if any of them have actual value. What largely matters, for most people, is a balance sheet of assets and liabilities. In a separate section of his disclosure form, Trump listed 21 assets, split between his golf properties and buildings around the world.

He lists a handful of liabilities as well but here, too, it's nearly impossible to see whether those add up to a significant amount. The New York Times obtained his 1995 tax return and wrote that he deducted nearly a billion dollars that year, and then likely carried those losses forward. His organization has been through four bankruptcies. Johnston has written in The Daily Beast that Trump likely can carry his tax losses forward for another quarter century.

Any determination if Trump is actually a billionaire or not rests principally with the value of those 21 assets listed in his FEC disclosure form. These claims are somewhat verifiable from local newspaper accounts, public court records in instances where the Trump organization has been sued in civil court or asset valuations he has filed with local and state government entities for the purpose of tax assessments on the properties.

Johnston has written about Trump's net worth in the past – and concluded, at the time, that what Trump told journalists was at odds with what his organization reported to regulatory authorities.

"In 1990, when his business empire was on the verge of collapse, Trump told me and many other journalists that he was worth $3 billion. He told others $5 billion," Johnston wrote in his book. "I got my hands on a copy of his personal net worth statement that spring, which revealed a much smaller figure. Two months later, a report commissioned by his bankers and introduced in casino hearings put Trump in the red by almost $300 million."

Trump has said he's recovered from that era, and that his properties today are worth billions. In his book, Johnston used local newspaper accounts and public tax records to take a closer look at several of his signature golf properties listed on the FEC form to see how well they stood up under scrutiny to Trump's self-evaluation of $50 million of more. The valuations didn't hold up, he wrote.

"Trump's 92-page disclosure report valued one of his best-known properties at more than $50 million," Johnston wrote in his book. "But he told tax authorities the same property was worth only about $1 million. He valued another signature Trump property at zero – and demanded the return of property taxes he had already paid."

Trump has based much of his presidential candidacy on his business prowess, and that he has turned the inheritance from his father into billions. Tens of millions of voters are being asked to make a decision based on what he says from his bully pulpit about his wealth – with no way for anyone to verify his self-reported status as a billionaire, his business prowess, or the value of his signature properties he lists on his FEC form.

So is Trump a billionaire? We don't know. The media has done its best to find out, but has had only partial success. Unless Trump releases his tax returns, there's no way to verify his claims – which means that voters will go to the polls on Tuesday with nothing more than an educated guess about the true extent of his business success that is central to his presidential candidacy.

Copyright 2016 U.S. News & World Report

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