Analysts are forecasting a "restaurant recession" in the U.S., which is bad news for America's food and drink establishments and potentially even worse news for the economy at large.
Paul Westra, a senior research analyst at Stifel Financial Corp., said in a research note Tuesday that he'd turned "decidedly bearish" on the restaurant industry, downgrading Stifel's stance on 11 different restaurant stocks, including Chipotle Mexican Grill, Panera Bread and Cheesecake Factory.
He and his colleagues now "confidently believe" that the weak restaurant consumer spending seen in the second quarter of the year "reflects the start of a U.S. restaurant recession."
"The catalyst for the current weak pre-recessionary restaurant spending trend is likely multifaceted – U.S. politics, terrorism, social unrest, global geopolitics, economic uncertainty," Westra said. "But, if history is a guide, we warn investors that restaurant-industry sales tend to be the 'canary that lays the recessionary egg.'"
Restaurants aren't themselves a monumental driver of America's gross domestic product, but they're usually a pretty good indicator of what Americans are doing with their money. When times start getting tough, eating out is typically one of the first things to go.
Sales at food services establishments and drinking places – including restaurants and bars – are up about 5 percent over the year, according to the Census Bureau. So it's not as if spending has uniformly taken a nosedive.
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McDonald's around the world
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A McDrive restaurant is pictured in Saint Jean de Luz, southwestern France, Wednesday Jan. 22, 2014. McDonald's says French tax authorities have searched its offices, but denies a report that the company hid profits in tax havens. The weekly magazine L'Express, citing tax officials, says the French budget ministry suspects the fast food chain of owing up to 2.2 billion euros in taxes since 2009. The report says McDonald's France hid profits in subsidiaries in Luxembourg and Switzerland. (AP Photo/Bob Edme)
McDonald's Japan Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Eiko Harada, right, and Japan's leading telecommunications company NTT DoComo CEO Masao Nakamura get together with the hamburger chain's mascot Ronald McDonald and holding NTT's mascot stuffed mashrooms after a joint press conference in Tokyo Monday, Feb. 26, 2007. McDonald's and NTT announced Monday they have reached an agreement to jointly promote e-marketing based on NTT DoComo's e-wallet service. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)
Employees prepare to serve customers at a newly-renovated McDonald's in central Beijing Wednesday, Dec. 15, 2010. The fast food restaurant chain plans to open a total of 2,000 restaurants in China by 2013. (AP Photo/Alexander F. Yuan)
**FILE** In this March 18, 2008 file photo, the marquis of a Times Square McDonald's is reflected on a taxi in New York. McDonald's says it swung to a profit in its second quarter, Wednesday, July 23, 2008, helped by a gain from selling its interest in a gourmet sandwich chain and strong sales of breakfast items, chicken sandwiches and beverages. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan, file)
In this June 28, 2011 photo, a sign directing people to the McDonald's restaurant near the historic Pantheon is displayed in Rome, Italy. McDonald's Corp. said Friday, July 22, its net income rose 15 percent in the second quarter to $1.4 billion on rising sales around the world. (AP Photo/Amy Sancetta)
School children forms the Olympic rings with mascot Fuwa during the McDonald's 2008 Olympic Games sponsorship platform and its newest program, McDonald's Champion Kids, in Beijing, China, Thursday, Aug. 9, 2007. The program, led by six-time U.S. Olympic gold medalist Michael Phelps as Global Ambassador, will enable up to 300 kids from around the world to travel to the 2008 Olympic Games, meet Olympic athletes, visit cultural sights and interact with kids from across the globe. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)
Exterior of McDonald's restaurant in San Jose, Calif., Monday, Jan. 26, 2009. McDonald's Corp. proved on Monday that its burgers and fries can still tempt thrifty consumers around the world despite a deepening recession that has chomped on the profits and sales of its pricier sit-down competitors. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma)
An employee hands a drive-thru order to a McDonald's customer at the Rock & Roll McDonalds in Chicago, Oct. 15, 2007. McDonald's Corp. said Friday, Oct. 19, 2007 its third-quarter earnings jumped 27 percent on rising sales of everything from coffee and breakfast items to hamburgers and snack wraps. The earnings, which were in line with preliminary results released last week, keep the world's largest restaurant chain on a sustained roll around the globe. (AP Photo/M. Spencer Green)
People haste their way home after work and go past a McDonald's hamburger shop in downtown Tokyo, Monday, May 9, 2005. McDonald's Holdings Co. which is 50%-owned by the U.S. hamburger giant, said its group net profit more than tripled to 1.92 billion yen (US$18.6 million) from 560 million yen (US$5.3 million) a year ago. (AP Photo/Junji Kurokawa)
In this Tuesday, Jan. 21, 2014, photo, cars drive past the McDonald's Golden Arches logo at a McDonald's restaurant in Robinson Township, Pa. McDonald's reports quarterly earnings on Thursday, Jan. 23, 2014. (AP Photo/Gene J. Puskar)
Youths gather outside a McDonald's restaurant in London, Sunday, Sept. 4, 2011. About 1,200 McDonald's restaurants in Britain will begin displaying the calorie count of each food and drink item on their wall-mounted menu boards this week, as part of a government-led program to fight obesity and promote healthier eating, the chain said Sunday. McDonald's already puts calorie information on its Web site and the back of its tray liners, but this is the first time the figures will be displayed prominently in its restaurants outside the U.S. The chain has similar calorie menu boards in New York City, which became the first in the U.S. to put a calorie posting law in place in 2008.The British program is voluntary, and relies on partnering companies to fulfill their health pledges. Other chains that have signed up to the British Department of Health calorie display program include Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut and Starbucks. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
A Happy Meal box and toy are shown outside of a McDonald's restaurant in San Francisco, Friday, Oct. 1, 2010. A proposed city ordinance would require the giant hamburger chain to either stop putting little toys for kids in those Happy Meal boxes, or otherwise make them healthier by adding fruit and vegetable portions and limiting calories. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu)
In this May 6, 2012, photo, people walk around a McDonald's restaurant in New York's Time Square. McDonald's Corp. said Tuesday, May 8, that a key revenue figure rose in April as strength in the U.S. and U.K. helped offset weakness in Japan. But results missed analyst expectations and McDonald's shares fell 2 percent in premarket trading. The world's largest hamburger chain says global sales rose 3.3 percent at stores open at least 13 months. (AP Photo/CX Matiash)
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But sales have fallen in three of the last six months, and their pace of expansion is undoubtedly easing. Restaurant stock prices have fallen in recent days on the heels of less-than-sterling earnings reports from major restaurant chains like McDonald's and Chipotle. Buffalo Wild Wings actually exceeded sales expectations in the second quarter, but the company indicated it was battling through a "challenging environment" in a statement accompanying its most recent financial report.
Westra said restaurant performance this year, particularly in the second quarter, is shaping up to look pretty similar to the second half of 2000 and the first half of 2007 – the periods that immediately preceded the last two U.S. recessions.
Should this trend continue, Westra said, 2016 and 2017 could end up being "the 'year-before' and 'year-of' a U.S. recession."
"We believe the industry has at least 18 months of challenges ahead in terms of softer same-store sales and higher labor costs because of capacity growth and labor tightness," Andy Barish, managing director at Jefferies investment banking company, wrote in a research note earlier this week.
Barish joined Westra in voicing concern for the industry, saying he was "calling the top of the restaurant cycle." Such a statement indicates restaurant sales are only expected to go downhill from here.
American restaurants are facing challenges on several fronts. Not only has consumer spending in the industry begun to lag, but there's some concern over profitability related to upcoming changes to U.S. overtime regulations and minimum wage hikes.
"Restaurants operate on thin margins with low profits per employee and little room to absorb added costs," the National Restaurant Association said in a statement earlier this year in response to news that the Labor Department was aiming to expand overtime eligibility among U.S. workers. "More than doubling the current minimum salary threshold for exempt employees, while automatically increasing salary levels, will harm restaurants and the employer community at large."
Westra's research note also pointed out that a substantial portion of the U.S. population lives in states and regions where minimum wage increases are expected over the next few years – namely California, New York, Maryland, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Michigan and Connecticut, among others.
RELATED: America's Top 10 fast food restaurants
America's Top 10 fast food restaurants
America's Top 10 fast food restaurants
9. Little Caesars
8. Domino's Pizza
(Photo: Elizabeth Hait)
6. Dunkin Donuts
5. Pizza Hut
4. Papa John's
3. Panera Bread
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In the face of increased labor costs and decreased consumption, the future for U.S. restaurants doesn't look great. It's worth noting, though, that the recent pullback in consumer spending could be related to rising gas prices. There's some speculation that restaurants were major beneficiaries of cheap energy costs, as consumers had more disposable cash to throw at fancy meals.
Gas prices are expected to ease slightly as the summer wears on and the U.S. moves away from peak travel season, so time will tell whether the restaurant industry's sales struggles are a blip on the radar or the sign of rough times ahead for the economy at large.