Climate change threatens hearts, lungs but also brains: US study

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New Report Finds Global Warming Is Affecting Human Health

WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- Climate change can be expected to boost the number of annual premature U.S. deaths from heat waves in coming decades and to increase mental health problems from extreme weather like hurricanes and floods, a U.S. study said on Monday.

"I don't know that we've seen something like this before, where we have a force that has such a multitude of effects," Surgeon General Vivek Murthy told reporters at the White House about the study. "There's not one single source that we can target with climate change, there are multiple paths that we have to address."

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Global warming, climate change impacting Patagonia's massive glaciers
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Climate change threatens hearts, lungs but also brains: US study
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 29: Ice calves from the Northern wall of the Perito Moreno glacier in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, on November 29, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Certain areas of glacial ice take on a bluish hue due to light refraction. The Southern Patagonian Ice Field is the third largest ice field in the world. The majority of the almost 50 large glaciers in Los Glaciares National Park have been retreating during the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in ice caps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 28: Runoff cascades from the edge of Heim glacier in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, the third largest ice field in the world, on November 28, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The majority of the almost fifty large glaciers in the park have been retreating over the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in icecaps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 27: The Perito Moreno glacier stands in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, the third largest ice field in the world, on November 27, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Certain areas of glacial ice take on a blueish hue due to light refraction. The majority of the almost fifty large glaciers in the park have been retreating over the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in icecaps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 28: Runoff cascades from the edge of Heim glacier in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, the third largest ice field in the world, on November 28, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The majority of the almost fifty large glaciers in the park have been retreating over the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in icecaps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 27: The Perito Moreno glacier stands in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, the third largest ice field in the world, on November 27, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The majority of the almost fifty large glaciers in the park have been retreating over the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in icecaps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 29: The Perito Moreno glacier stands in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, on November 29, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Certain areas of glacial ice take on a bluish hue due to light refraction. The Southern Patagonian Ice Field is the third largest ice field in the world. The majority of the almost 50 large glaciers in Los Glaciares National Park have been retreating during the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in ice caps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 28: An iceberg broken off from a melting glacier floats in Lake Argentino, which holds runoff water from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, the third largest ice field in the world, on November 28, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The majority of the almost fifty large glaciers in the surrounding Los Glaciares National Park have been retreating over the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in icecaps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 29: Melting glacial ice floats in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, on November 29, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Certain areas of glacial ice take on a bluish hue due to light refraction. The Southern Patagonian Ice Field is the third largest ice field in the world. The majority of the almost 50 large glaciers in Los Glaciares National Park have been retreating during the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in ice caps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 28: An iceberg broken off from a melting glacier floats in Lake Argentino, which holds runoff water from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, the third largest ice field in the world, on November 28, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Certain areas of glacial ice take on a blueish hue due to light refraction. The majority of the almost fifty large glaciers in the surrounding Los Glaciares National Park have been retreating over the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in icecaps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 29: Melted glacial ice floats in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, on November 29, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Certain areas of glacial ice take on a bluish hue due to light refraction. The Southern Patagonian Ice Field is the third largest ice field in the world. The majority of the almost 50 large glaciers in Los Glaciares National Park have been retreating during the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in ice caps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 29: The Perito Moreno glacier stands in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, on November 29, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Certain areas of glacial ice take on a bluish hue due to light refraction. The Southern Patagonian Ice Field is the third largest ice field in the world. The majority of the almost 50 large glaciers in Los Glaciares National Park have been retreating during the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in ice caps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
SANTA CRUZ PROVINCE, ARGENTINA - NOVEMBER 28: Runoff cascades from the edge of Heim glacier in Los Glaciares National Park, part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, the third largest ice field in the world, on November 28, 2015 in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The majority of the almost fifty large glaciers in the park have been retreating over the past fifty years due to warming temperatures, according to the European Space Agency (ESA). The United States Geological Survey reports that over 68 percent of the world's freshwater supplies are locked in icecaps and glaciers. The United Nations climate change conference begins November 30 in Paris. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Heat waves were estimated to cause 670 to 1,300 U.S. deaths annually in recent years. Premature U.S. deaths from heat waves can be expected to rise more than 27,000 per year by 2100, from a 1990 baseline, one scenario in the study said. The rise outpaced projected decreases in deaths from extreme cold.

Extreme heat can cause more forest fires and increase pollen counts and the resulting poor air quality threatens people with asthma and other lung conditions. The report said poor air quality will likely lead to hundreds of thousands of premature deaths, hospital visits, and acute respiratory illness each year by 2030.

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Climate change also threatens mental health, the study found. Post traumatic stress disorder, depression, and general anxiety can all result in places that suffer extreme weather linked to climate change, such as hurricanes and floods. More study needs to be done on assessing the risks to mental health, it said.

The peer-reviewed study by eight federal agencies can be found here.

Cases of mosquito and tick-borne diseases can also be expected to increase, though the study, completed over three years, did not look at whether locally-transmitted Zika virus cases would be more likely to hit the United States.

RELATED: Alaska reacts to climate change:

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Coastal Alaska reacts to climate change
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Climate change threatens hearts, lungs but also brains: US study
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 05: People walk down the elevated, raised wooden sidewalks - created so people don't sink into the melting permafrost - on July 5, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which is having to relocate due to melting permafrost and rapid erosion of the river it is established next to, has to have all its fuel and fresh water brought in aboard tankers. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 05: Joseph John Jr. collects fresh water for his family at the fresh water storage tank - one of the only places to get fresh water in town - on July 5, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which is having to relocate due to melting permafrost and rapid erosion of the river it is established next to, has to have all its fuel and fresh water brought in aboard tankers. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 05: Joseph John Jr. collects fresh water for his family at the fresh water storage tank - one of the only places to get fresh water in town - on July 5, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which is having to relocate due to melting permafrost and rapid erosion of the river it is established next to, has to have all its fuel and fresh water brought in aboard tankers. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 05: Boys play on storage tanks for fuel on July 5, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which is having to relocate due to melting permafrost and rapid erosion of the river it is established next to, has to have all its fuel and fresh water brought in aboard tankers. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 05: Samuel John, age 8, looks out his window across the tundra on July 5, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people, was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. However, as global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost; greater ice and snow melt - which is causing the Ninglick river to widen and erode the river bank; and larger storms that come in from the Bering Sea, which further erodes the land. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the high point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. A new village, approximately nine miles away titled Mertarvik, has been established, though so far families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 04: Villagers watch children compete in foot races as a part of Fourth of July celebrations on July 4, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming temperatures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and coastline and erosion to the land. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: A Yupik girl rides her bike late in the evening on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: A puppy sits next to a walrus skull and a chain saw on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JUNE 29: The marshy landscape surrounding Newtok is seen from a plane on June 29, 2015 outside Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people, was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. However, as global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost; greater ice and snow melt - which is causing the Ninglick river to widen and erode the river bank; and larger storms that come in from the Bering Sea, which further erodes the land. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the high point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. A new village, approximately nine miles away titled Mertarvik, has been established, though so far families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: A Yupik family eats a meal of salmon that is half dried, then smoked and boiled on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: A boy hangs out on the front steps of his great-grandmother's house on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: Yupik children play on their tablets in a one room house on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: Newtok homes are seen situation amongst ponds and tall grass on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: Nathan Tom plays drums in his shed on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: Erosion on the shores of the Ninglick River is seen on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 02: Polo the dog waits as Rodrick Stewart (L) and Eddie Lopez set a fish net on Nelson Island on July 2, 2015 near Newtok, Alaska. Newtok has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people and was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. As global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost, greater ice and snow melt and larger storms from the Bering Sea. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the highest elevated point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. Approximately nine miles away, Mertarvik has been established, though families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 01: Yupik men head back to their village after a day of salmon fishing on July 1, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people and was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. As global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost, greater ice and snow melt and larger storms from the Bering Sea. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the highest elevated point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. Approximately nine miles away, Mertarvik has been established, though families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 02: Polo the dog helps look for ducks hunting expedition on Nelson Island on July 2, 2015 near Newtok, Alaska. Newtok has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people and was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. As global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost, greater ice and snow melt and larger storms from the Bering Sea. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the highest elevated point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. Approximately nine miles away, Mertarvik has been established, though families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 03: Erosion on the shores of the Ninglick River is seen on July 3, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok is one of several remote Alaskan villages that is being forced to relocate due to warming tempertures which is causing the melting of permafrost, widening of rivers and the erosion of land and coastline. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 02: Eddie Lopez holds a freshly killed duck during a hunting expedition on Nelson Island on July 2, 2015 near Newtok, Alaska. Newtok has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people and was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. As global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost, greater ice and snow melt and larger storms from the Bering Sea. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the highest elevated point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. Approximately nine miles away, Mertarvik has been established, though families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 02: Rodrick Stewart (L) and Robert Page hunt for beaver on Nelson Island on July 2, 2015 near Newtok, Alaska. Newtok has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people and was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. As global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost, greater ice and snow melt and larger storms from the Bering Sea. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the highest elevated point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. Approximately nine miles away, Mertarvik has been established, though families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 01: Joseph John Jr. washes freshly caught salmon with his son, Jeremiah John, while waiting for the tide to come in on July 1, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people and was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. As global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost, greater ice and snow melt and larger storms from the Bering Sea. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the highest elevated point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. Approximately nine miles away, Mertarvik has been established, though families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JULY 01: A Yupik man fishes with nets while waiting for the tide to come in after a day of salmon fishing on July 1, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people and was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. As global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost, greater ice and snow melt and larger storms from the Bering Sea. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the highest elevated point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. Approximately nine miles away, Mertarvik has been established, though families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JUNE 30: A Yupik child stands on raised, wooden sidewalks, used to help cross unstable ground, on June 30, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people, was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. However, as global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost; greater ice and snow melt - which is causing the Ninglick river to widen and erode the river bank; and larger storms that come in from the Bering Sea, which further erodes the land. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the high point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. A new village, approximately nine miles away titled Mertarvik, has been established, though so far families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JUNE 30: John Usugan uses a rope to recover his snow mobile, which sank when he tried to cross a pond on it, on June 30, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people, was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. However, as global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost; greater ice and snow melt - which is causing the Ninglick river to widen and erode the river bank; and larger storms that come in from the Bering Sea, which further erodes the land. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the high point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. A new village, approximately nine miles away titled Mertarvik, has been established, though so far families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JUNE 30: Yupik children play during summer vacation on June 30, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people, was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. However, as global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost; greater ice and snow melt - which is causing the Ninglick river to widen and erode the river bank; and larger storms that come in from the Bering Sea, which further erodes the land. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the high point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. A new village, approximately nine miles away titled Mertarvik, has been established, though so far families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
NEWTOK, AK - JUNE 29: The village of Newtok is seen from a plane on June 29, 2015 in Newtok, Alaska. Newtok, which has a population of approximately of 375 ethnically Yupik people, was established along the shores of the Ninglick River, near where the river empties into the Bering Sea, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in 1959. The Yupik people have lived on the coastal lands along the Bering Sea for thousands of years. However, as global temperatures rise the village is being threatened by the melting of permafrost; greater ice and snow melt - which is causing the Ninglick river to widen and erode the river bank; and larger storms that come in from the Bering Sea, which further erodes the land. According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, the high point in Newtok - the school - could be underwater by 2017. A new village, approximately nine miles away titled Mertarvik, has been established, though so far families have been slow to relocate to the new village. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
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President Barack Obama's administration has taken steps to cut carbon emissions by speeding a switch from coal and oil to cleaner energy sources. In February, the Supreme Court dealt a blow to the White House's climate ambitions by putting a hold Obama's plan to cut emissions from power plants. Administration officials say the plan is on safe legal footing.

John Holdren, Obama's senior science adviser, said steps the world agreed to in Paris last year to curb emissions through 2030 can help fight the risks to health.

"We will need a big encore after 2030 ... in order to avoid the bulk of the worst impacts described in this report," he said.

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