In garbage crisis, Lebanon chokes on bad air and bad politics

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Trash crisis in Lebanon
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In garbage crisis, Lebanon chokes on bad air and bad politics
Rubbish is piles up around a tree at a temporary garbage dump north-east of the Lebanese capital, Beirut, on December 21, 2015. The rubbish crisis began in July when the closure of a landfill caused rubbish to pile up on Beirut's roadsides, in parking lots and river beds. AFP PHOTO / PATRICK BAZ / AFP / PATRICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Getty Images)
Rubbish is piled up at a temporary garbage dump on a beach in Zalka north of Beirut on December 22, 2015. Lebanon's rubbish crisis began in July when the closure of a landfill caused rubbish to pile up on Beirut's roadsides, in parking lots and river beds. AFP PHOTO / PATRICK BAZ / AFP / PATRICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Getty Images)
BEIRUT, LEBANON - JANUARY 14: Anti-government protesters stage a demonstration outside the Environment Ministry in support of activists who were detained after staging a sit-in inside, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Thursday, on January 14, 2016. Lebanons trash collection crisis which set off huge protests in the summer is still festering, with no immediate solution on the horizon. (Photo by Ratib Al Safadi/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
A general view shows rubbish piled up next to a highway bridge at the eastern entrance to the Lebanese capital, Beirut, on January 5, 2016. AFP PHOTO/JOSEPH EID / AFP / JOSEPH EID (Photo credit should read JOSEPH EID/AFP/Getty Images)
Youngsters walk past a temporary garbage dump in a suburb of the Lebanese capital, Beirut, on January 8, 2016. AFP PHOTO / PATRICK BAZ / AFP / PATRICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Getty Images)
TOPSHOT - An Asian worker collects rubbish from Beirut's public beach, Ramlet al-Baida, on January 5, 2016. / AFP / PATRICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Getty Images)
TOPSHOT - A car drives past rubbish piled up next to a highway bridge at the eastern entrance to the Lebanese capital, Beirut, on January 5, 2016. AFP PHOTO/JOSEPH EID / AFP / JOSEPH EID (Photo credit should read JOSEPH EID/AFP/Getty Images)
A general view of the Lebanese capital Beirut from the town of Beit Mery in the Metn region on January 8, 2016. AFP PHOTO / PATRICK BAZ / AFP / PATRICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Getty Images)
A street cleaner collects dirt from the floor as he walks past a pile of garbage in the town of Jdeideh North East of the Lebanese capital Beirut, on January 2, 2016. AFP PHOTO / PATRICK BAZ / AFP / PATRICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Getty Images)
Lebanese civil society activist try to storm the Lebanese Ministry of Environment during an anti-government rally in downtown Beirut to protest against government policies to solve the waste crisis, on January 14, 2016. Lebanese riot police arrested around ten acivists as demonstrators tried to storm the Ministry of Environment in protest against the country's ongoing trash crisis. / AFP / JOSEPH EID (Photo credit should read JOSEPH EID/AFP/Getty Images)
In this Thursday, Dec. 17, 2015 photo, a car passes by a pile of garbage in Karantina, east Beirut, Lebanon. Lebanonâs trash collection crisis which set off summer protests is entering its sixth month, but you would hardly be able to know it in Beirut. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
In this Thursday, Dec. 17, 2015 photo, a pile of garbage blocks a street covers by a green tarp in Karantina, east Beirut, Lebanon. Lebanonâs trash collection crisis which set off summer protests is entering its sixth month, but you would hardly be able to know it in Beirut. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
A bulldozer moves piles of garbage in Karantina, east Beirut, Lebanon, Sunday, Nov. 1, 2015. Lebanon has been witnessing a wave of anti-government rallies, sparked by the government's inability to solve an ongoing trash crisis. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
Lebanese activists are sprayed with water as they try to cross to the government house, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
Lebanese riot policemen stand guard in front the government house, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down.(AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
Lebanese riot policemen arrest an activist, center, as they are sprayed by water cannons during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in front of the government house, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
Lebanese activists, right, clash with policemen, left, as they try to cross to the government house during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. A group of Lebanese activists have clashed with Lebanese police who sprayed them with water cannons in downtown Beirut over the country’s mounting trash crisis. Garbage has been accumulating on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down.(AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
Lebanese policemen stop an activist, center, who was trying to remove barriers to cross to the government house, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. to cross to the government house, as riot police spray them by water during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. A group of Lebanese activists have clashed with Lebanese police who sprayed them with water cannons in downtown Beirut over the country’s mounting trash crisis. Garbage has been accumulating on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
Lebanese riot police scuffle with Lebanese activists during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
A Lebanese activist carries a plastic bag of garbage as he sprayed by water cannons, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in front the government house, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
Lebanese activists, right, clash with policemen, left, as they try to cross to the government house, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. A group of Lebanese activists have clashed with Lebanese police who sprayed them with water cannons in downtown Beirut over the country’s mounting trash crisis. Garbage has been accumulating on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down.(AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
Lebanese paramedics carry away a Lebanese demonstrator during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
A Lebanese woman holds a Lebanese flag as she stands in front of riot police during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
Lebanese riot police scuffle with Lebanese activists during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)
Lebanese activists shout anti-government slogans as they are sprayed by riot police using water cannons, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in front of the government house, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
Lebanese activists remove barriers as they try to cross to the government house, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down.(AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
Lebanese activists are sprayed by riot police using water cannons, during a protest against the ongoing trash crisis, in front of the government house, in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, Wednesday, Aug. 19, 2015. Lebanon's health minister says the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for its mounting trash problem. Garbage has been collecting on the streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
FILE - In this July 27, 2015 file photo, a Lebanese woman covers her nose from the smell as she walks on a street partly blocked by piles of garbage in Beirut, Lebanon. Health Minister Wael Abu Faour said Monday, Aug. 17, 2015 that the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for the country's trash. Garbage has been collecting on streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar, File)
A pile of garbage blocks a street in east Beirut, Lebanon, Monday, Aug. 17, 2015. Health Minister Wael Abu Faour said Monday that the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for the country's trash. Garbage has been collecting on streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar)
A pile of garbage lies on the bank of the Beirut River as polluted water flows past and into the Mediterranean Sea, in Karantina, east Beirut, Lebanon, Monday, Aug. 17, 2015. Health Minister Wael Abu Faour said Monday, Aug. 17, 2015 that the country is on the brink of a "major health disaster" unless an immediate solution is found for the country's trash. Garbage has been collecting on streets in Lebanon for the past month amid government paralysis and inability to agree on a solution after Beirut's main landfill was closed down. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar)
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BEIRUT (Reuters) - Lebanon's government is so dysfunctional, Beirut stinks. And now it's getting dangerous.

Six months ago, the authorities shut the main landfill site for garbage from the capital, without providing an alternative. Since then, rubbish collection has halted and festering trash has piled up in the city streets, causing what researchers and campaigners now say is a public health emergency.

Officials say they will resolve the crisis by paying a foreign company to ship rubbish abroad, although even the minister in charge calls the plan "crazy".

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Activists say it is proof that a governing system, set up 25 years ago to share power among feuding sectarian groups and end a multi-sided civil war, has become so inefficient and corrupt that it is no longer capable of providing even basic services.

"We are not asking for an impossible thing," said Wadih al-Asmar, organizer of YouStink, a group formed last year to protest against the rubbish crisis. "It's obvious all countries should have a strategic plan on waste management."

Untreated, unmanaged rubbish threatens the water supply, academics say. Hills of waste rise from makeshift dumps across the city and surrounding areas, including the banks of Beirut River just meters from where it meets the Mediterranean.

Garbage has been burnt, including in the normally lovely forests around Beirut, filling the air with foul smoke that contains dangerous levels of pollutants.

As waste burns, carcinogens in the air increase by at least 2,300 percent, and metals including lead and arsenic increase by 98-1,448 percent, a study by the American University of Beirut and the Lebanese National Council for Scientific Research (CNRS) found.

"In an almost closed area like Beirut with increasingly tall buildings, this leads to a kind of suffocation," CNRS secretary general Mouin Hamza told a news conference. "Burning waste is suicidal."



CRAZY SOLUTION, CRAZY PEOPLE

The Lebanese system of government stitched back together after the war carefully balances the interests of Sunni, Shi'ite, Christian and Druze groups. But the need for consensus in decision-making makes it easy for regional and community leaders to veto planning decisions.

And nobody wants a garbage dump in their backyard.

The government's solution is a plan to pay a British firm to ship waste abroad.

"It's a crazy solution in a country of crazy people," Agriculture Minister Akram Chehayeb, placed in charge of resolving the crisis, said on national television.

The plan would cost $193 per tonne to get rid of the waste, Chehayeb told Reuters. That is more than a third more than the $140 a tonne Beirut's waste management company Sukleen says it charged to clear away waste before the landfill closed last year. Chehayeb expects 2,000-2,500 tonnes of rubbish a day to be shipped, which works out to up to $176 million a year.

Chehayeb told Reuters the export of new and old waste by Britain's Chinook Urban Mining would begin on Feb. 28. But previous deadlines have repeatedly been missed, the finance minister has criticized the program's cost, and anti-corruption and environmental campaign groups have raised concerns about the lack of transparency in the tender process.

Chinook, which describes itself as Britain's premier developer of technology to produce clean energy by burning rubbish, confirmed it has been awarded the contract. It would not disclose to Reuters what it will do with the Lebanese trash or where it will ship it.

Local media have quoted Nabil Jisr, head of the Council for Development and Reconstruction, a government body, saying the rubbish would be sent to Russia.

Six months is a long time in waste management: the area produced around 3,000 tonnes of refuse a day before the crisis, according to the company that collects it, meaning around half a million tonnes of untreated trash has had nowhere to go.

"At night we can smell very strong gas," said Samir Abdelnur, who said he closes his grocery shop near the busy Karantina port earlier now because of the smell and the flies from the temporary garbage mountain facing his store.

"Fewer people are stopping to buy things."

A BAD SMELL

Frustrated activists and citizens point the finger at Lebanon's paralyzed political system, made worse because of sectarian tension that has increased with Syria's civil war next door. The government has not passed a budget since 2005 and has been without a president for over a year and a half.

The country's infrastructure is under extra pressure from more than 1 million Syrian refugees who have joined the 4.5 million Lebanese.

As rubbish rotted in last year's suffocating summer heat, protests broke out and anti-government movements such as "You Stink" and "We Want Accountability" crystallized. Protests were frequent but have now largely fizzled out after a security crackdown.

A woman named Lara, detained last year after a protest at the parliament, said: "The government should be responsible for collecting garbage. It is a basic right not to have garbage lying around everywhere in Beirut."

A long-term recycling and waste management plan proposed by a committee of experts late last year failed to make it off the ground because communities rejected proposed new landfill sites.

In Akkar, 120 km (75 miles) north of Beirut, residents rejected plans to upgrade an existing rubbish dump into a managed landfill to take some of Beirut's waste, despite being offered around $100 million in development grants, local campaigner Antoine Daher told Reuters.

Lebanese are used to finding other solutions when the state fails: the water and electricity systems have yet to be fully repaired since the civil war ended, but expensive private water suppliers and street-level power generators have stepped in.

Similarly, a local body, the Higher Chouf Municipalities Federation, has stepped in to deal with the garbage crisis in villages in the hills overlooking Beirut, pooling funds and donations to build a waste sorting and composting facility.

Sami Atallah, director of the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies, said structures exist for municipalities to manage rubbish systems. The American University waste task force has published a guide showing how municipalities can build facilities. But the government has shown little interest.

"Central government is still trying to monopolize the sector," Atallah said. "There is money to be made and they are trying to figure out how to split the pie."

(Editing by Tom Perry and Peter Graff)

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