Zika virus spreads fear among pregnant Brazilians

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Zika, Mosquito borne illness causing birth defects in Brazil
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Zika virus spreads fear among pregnant Brazilians
In this Jan. 29, 2016 photo, Tainara Lourenco, who is five months pregnant, sits inside her house at a slum in Recife, Brazil. Like many of the estimated 400,000 women currently pregnant in Brazil, she canât afford mosquito repellent. The government has pledged to start providing repellent to low-income women and promises to deploy the Armed Forces to help eliminate Aedesâ breeding places. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 29: Dr. Valeria Barros treats a 6-week old baby born with microcephaly at the Lessa de Andrade polyclinic during a physical therapy session on January 29, 2016 in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Health officials believe as many as 100,000 people have been exposed to the Zika virus in Recife, although most never develop symptoms. In the last four months, authorities have recorded around 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 31: Alice Vitoria Gomes Bezerra, 3-months-old, who has microcephaly, is held by her mother Nadja Cristina Gomes Bezerra on January 31, 2016 in Recife, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded close to 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 29: David Henrique Ferreira, 5 months, who was born with microcephaly, is kissed by his mother Mylene Helena Ferreira on January 29, 2016 in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded around 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 29: David Henrique Ferreira, 5 months, who was born with microcephaly, is held by his grandmother Maria Elisabeth as his mother stands at right on January 29, 2016 in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded around 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
Pregnant woman Angelica Prato, infected by the Zika virus, is attended at the Erasmo Meoz University Hospital in Cucuta, Colombia, on January 25, 2016. Authorities in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador and Jamaica have advised couples to avoid pregnancy for the time being due to the presence of the Zika virus because if a pregnant woman is infected by the virus, the baby could be born with microcephaly. The Zika virus, a mosquito-borne disease suspected of causing serious birth defects, is expected to spread to all countries in the Americas except Canada and Chile, the World Health Organization said. AFP PHOTO/Schneyder Mendoza / AFP / SCHNEYDER MENDOZA (Photo credit should read SCHNEYDER MENDOZA/AFP/Getty Images)
In this Jan. 29, 2016 photo, Tainara Lourenco smiles as she chats with neighbors from the entrance of home at a slum in Recife, Brazil. Unemployed and five months pregnant, 21-year-old Lourenco lives in a slum at the epicenter of Brazilâs tandem Zika and microcephaly outbreaks, the state of Pernambuco. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 27: Alice Vitoria Gomes Bezerra, 3-months-old, who has microcephaly, is placed in her crib by her father Joao Batista Bezerra on January 27, 2016 in Recife, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded close to 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. At least twelve cases in the United States have now been confirmed by the CDC. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
Gleyse Kelly da Silva holds her daughter Maria Giovanna as she sleeps in their house in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, Wednesday, Jan. 27, 2016. Brazilian officials still say they believe there's a sharp increase in cases of microcephaly and strongly suspect the Zika virus, which first appeared in the country last year, is to blame. The concern is strong enough that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention this month warned pregnant women to reconsider visits to areas where Zika is present. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
Kleisse Marcelina ,24, bathes her son Pietro, 2 month, suffering from microcephalia caught through an Aedes Aegypti mosquito bite, in Salvador, Brazil on January 28 , 2016. AFP PHOTO / Christophe SIMON / AFP / CHRISTOPHE SIMON (Photo credit should read CHRISTOPHE SIMON/AFP/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 26: Grandmother Ivalda Caetano holds Ludmilla Hadassa Dias de Vasconcelos (2 months), who has microcephaly, at Oswald Cruz hospital on January 26, 2016 in Recife, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded close to 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. At least twelve cases in the United States have now been confirmed by the CDC. The Brazilian government announced it will deploy more than 200,000 troops to combat the mosquitos which are spreading the Zika virus. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 27: Dr. Vanessa Van Der Linden, the neuro-pediatrician who first recognized and alerted authorities over the microcephaly crisis in Brazil, measures the head of a 2-month-old baby with microcephaly on January 27, 2016 in Recife, Brazil. The baby's mother was diagnosed with having the Zika virus during her pregnancy. In the last four months, authorities have recorded close to 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. At least twelve cases in the United States have now been confirmed by the CDC. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 31: Alice Vitoria Gomes Bezerra, 3-months-old, who has microcephaly, is held by her mother Nadja Cristina Gomes Bezerra on January 31, 2016 in Recife, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded close to 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. The ailment results in an abnormally small head in newborns and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to spread throughout nearly all the Americas. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
Physical therapist Isana Santana treats Ruan Hentique dos Santos, suffering from microcephalia caught through an Aedes Aegypti mosquito bite, at Obras Socias irma dulce hospital in Salvador, Brazil on January 28 , 2016. AFP PHOTO / Christophe SIMON / AFP / CHRISTOPHE SIMON (Photo credit should read CHRISTOPHE SIMON/AFP/Getty Images)
The parents of Icaro Luis , 2 month, suffering from microcephalia caught through an Aedes Aegypti mosquito bite, Physical therapist Isana Santan at the Obras socias irma dulce hospital in Salvador, Brazil on January 28, 2016. AFP PHOTO / Christophe SIMON / AFP / CHRISTOPHE SIMON (Photo credit should read CHRISTOPHE SIMON/AFP/Getty Images)
Physical therapist Isana Santana treats Ruan Hentique dos Santos, suffering from microcephalia caught through an Aedes Aegypti mosquito bite, at Obras Socias irma dulce hospital in Salvador, Brazil on January 28 , 2016. AFP PHOTO / Christophe SIMON / AFP / CHRISTOPHE SIMON (Photo credit should read CHRISTOPHE SIMON/AFP/Getty Images)
Ana Paula Santos, 34, holds her 45-day-old daughter Flavia Alessandra suffering from microcephalia supposedly caught through an Aedes aegypti mosquito bite, at the Obras Sociais Irma Dulce hospital in Salvador, Brazil on January 27, 2016. AFP PHOTO / Christophe SIMON / AFP / CHRISTOPHE SIMON (Photo credit should read CHRISTOPHE SIMON/AFP/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 25: Estafany Perreira holds her nephew David Henrique Ferreira, 5 months, who has microcephaly, on January 25, 2016 in Recife, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded close to 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. Microcephaly results in newborns with abnormally small heads and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to further spread in South, Central and North America. At least twelve cases of Zika in the United States have now been confirmed by the CDC. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
RECIFE, BRAZIL - JANUARY 25: Mother Mylene Helena Ferreira cares for her son David Henrique Ferreira, 5 months, who has microcephaly, on January 25, 2016 in Recife, Brazil. In the last four months, authorities have recorded close to 4,000 cases in Brazil in which the mosquito-borne Zika virus may have led to microcephaly in infants. Microcephaly results in newborns with abnormally small heads and is associated with various disorders including decreased brain development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Zika virus outbreak is likely to further spread in South, Central and North America. At least twelve cases of Zika in the United States have now been confirmed by the CDC. (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, Solange Ferreira bathes her son Jose Wesley in a bucket at their house in Poco Fundo, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Ferreira says her son enjoys being in the water, she places him in the bucket several times a day to calm him. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, 10-year-old Elison nurses his 2-month-old brother Jose Wesley at their house in Poco Fundo, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Suspicion of the link between microcephaly and the Zika virus arose after officials recorded 17 cases of central nervous system malformations among fetuses and newborns after a Zika outbreak began last year in French Polynesia, according to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, plastic bags and trash lay on the ground in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, where many cases of Zika where reported in Pernambuco state, Brazil, Wednesday. The Zika virus, first detected about 40 years ago in Uganda, has long seen as a less-painful cousin to dengue and chikunguya, which are spread by the same Aedes mosquito. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, 10-year-old Elison, left, watches as his mother Solange Ferreira bathes Jose Wesley in a bucket at their house in Poco Fundo, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Ferreira says Jose Wesley enjoys being in the water, she places him in the bucket several times a day to calm him. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, Dejailson Arruda holds his daughter Luiza at their house in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco state, Brazil. More than 2,700 babies have been born in Brazil with microcephaly this year, up from fewer than 150 in 2014. Brazilâs health officials say theyâre convinced the jump is linked to a sudden outbreak of the Zika virus that infected Pereira, though international experts caution itâs far too early to be sure. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, 10-year-old Elison carries his 2-month-old brother Jose Wesley at their house in Poco Fundo, Pernambuco state, Brazil. More than 2,700 babies have been born in Brazil with microcephaly this year, up from fewer than 150 in 2014. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, Jose Wesley sleeps covered by a mosquito net in Poco Fundo, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Jose Wesleyâs mother Solange Ferreira had never heard of microcephaly before her youngest son was diagnosed a couple of days after his birth. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, 5-year-old Elenilson, left, holds a notebook as he plays next to his 2-month-old brother Jose Wesley at their house in Poco Fundo, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Their mother, Solange Ferreira had never heard of microcephaly before her youngest son was diagnosed a couple of days after his birth. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 22, 2015 photo, Angelica Pereira applies perfume on Luiza as her father Dejailson Arruda holds her at their house in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco state, Brazil. While thereâs never before been a detected link between the virus and microcephaly, âthere has never been an epidemic of Zika in the proportions that we are looking at now in Brazil,â said Pedro Fernando Vasconcelos, a researcher at Evandro Chagas Institute investigating an association between the virus and the birth defects. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 23, 2015 photo, Dejailson Arruda holds his daughter Luiza at their house in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Luiza was born in October with a rare condition, known as microcephaly. Luiza's mother Angelica Pereira was infected with the Zika virus after a mosquito bite. Brazilian health authorities are convinced that Luiza's condition is related to the Zika virus that infected her mother during pregnancy. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 22, 2015 photo, Angelica Pereira holds Luiza outside their house in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Luiza was born in October with a rare condition, known as microcephaly. The Zika virus, first detected in humans about 40 years ago in Uganda, has long seen as a less-painful cousin to dengue and chikunguya, which are spread by the same Aedes mosquito. Until a few months ago, investigators had no reported evidence it might be related to microcephaly. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 22, 2015 photo, Angelica Pereira, right, holds her daughter Luiza as she waits for their appointment with a neurologist at the Mestre Vitalino Hospital in Caruaru, Pernambuco state, Brazil. In November, Brazilian researchers detected the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples from two women whose fetuses were been diagnosed with microcephaly by ultrasound exams, the Pan American Health Organization reported. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 22, 2015 photo, Luiza has her head measured by a neurologist at the Mestre Vitalino Hospital in Caruaru, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Luiza was born in October with a head that was just 11.4 inches (29 centimeters) in diameter, more than an inch (3 centimeters) below the range defined as healthy by doctors. Her rare condition, known as microcephaly, often results in mental retardation. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 22, 2015 photo, Angelica Pereira holds her daughter Luiza as she waits for her husband at their house in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco state, Brazil. In the early weeks of Angelica Pereiraâs pregnancy, a mosquito bite began bothering her. At first it seemed a small thing. But the next day she awoke with a rash all over her body, a headache, a fever and a burning in her eyes. The symptoms disappeared within four days, but she fears the virus has left lasting consequences. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
In this Dec. 22, 2015 photo, Dejailson Arruda holds his daughter Luiza at their house in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Luiza was born in October with a head that was just 11.4 inches (29 centimeters) in diameter, more than an inch (3 centimeters) below the range defined as healthy by doctors. Her rare condition, known as microcephaly, often results in mental retardation. (AP Photo/Felipe Dana)
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RECIFE, Brazil, Jan 31 (Reuters) - For scores of women in the epicenter of the Zika outbreak in Brazil, the joy of pregnancy has given way to fear.

In the sprawling coastal city of Recife, panic has struck maternity wards since Zika - a mosquito-borne virus first detected in the Americas last year - was linked to wave of brain damage in newborns. There is no vaccine or known cure for the poorly understood disease.

In about four-fifths of cases, Zika causes no noticeable symptoms so women have no idea if they contracted it during pregnancy. Test kits for the virus are only effective in the first week of infection and only available at private clinics at a cost of 900 reais, more than the monthly minimum wage.

At Recife's IMIP hospital, dozens of soon-to-be mothers wait anxiously for ultrasound scans that will indicate whether the child they are carrying has a shrunken head and damaged brain, a condition called microcephaly. The hospital has already had 160 babies born there with the deformity since August.

"It's very frightening. I'm worried my daughter will have microcephaly," says Elisangela Barros, 40, shedding a tear behind her thick-rimmed glasses. "My neighborhood is poor and full of mosquitoes, trash and has no running water. Five of my neighbors have Zika."

Women like Barros, who live in crowded, muddy slums of Brazil's chaotic cities, have little defense against the Aedes aegypti mosquito that carries Zika, as well as other diseases such as dengue and yellow fever. They often cannot afford insect repellent and have little access to family planning.

Shocking images of babies with birth defects have made many women think twice about getting pregnant.

Doctors worry the outbreak will lead to an increase in dangerous clandestine abortions in the majority-Catholic country. Under Brazilian law, terminating pregnancies is illegal except in cases of rape and when the mothers' life is at risk.

The rapid spread of Zika to 22 countries in the Americas has prompted some governments to advise women to delay having children. El Salvador recommended women not get pregnant for two years.

It has also triggered debate on liberalizing abortion in the region, where many countries have strict laws.

"Fear is growing among women because this is a new disease that we know little about. We don't have many answers," said Adriana Scavuzzi, a gynecologist at the IMIP hospital.

Pregnant Brazilians Fear Zika Infection

THALIDOMIDE TRAGEDY

Brazil's health ministry said as of Jan. 23 there were 270 confirmed cases of microcephaly and a further 3,448 suspected cases since October are being investigated -- by far the most in the Americas.

World Health Organization officials say there is no scientific proof that Zika stunts the development of the fetus, causing microcephaly, but it is strongly suspected.

Ninety percent of children born with the condition will have retarded mental and physical development, and will need specialized care for the rest of their lives. There is no certainty what they will be able to see or hear, or when they will learn to walk and talk, Scavuzzi said.

Scavuzzi compared the emergency to the Thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s when thousands of children, mostly in Europe, were born with deformed limbs due to the use of the pill to help pregnant women with insomnia and morning sickness.

"It will be worse than the Thalidomide generation because then the cause could be withdrawn from the market," she said. "But how do you withdraw from circulation a mosquito that has lived with us for so long?"

Zika, first identified in Uganda in 1947 and unknown in the Americas until discovered in Brazil last year, causes a mild fever and body aches, symptoms that disappear in five days and can be mistaken for dengue, a virus that infected 1.6 million Brazilians last year.

With a health crisis on its hands, Brazil's government says women who want to get pregnant should discuss the risks with their doctors but has stopped short of telling them to delay.

Instead, it plans to hand out insect repellent to tens of thousands of low-income pregnant women and is stepping up an offensive to eradicate the mosquito with the help of the army.

ABORTION ILLEGAL

Public health experts expect Zika will lead to an increase in illegal abortions. An estimated 1 million are already carried out every year in Brazil.

Botched procedures in clandestine clinics using sharp tools, over-the-counter medicines and no sterilization are already a major cause of maternal deaths.

"Zika is a health catastrophe and a terrifying menace for pregnant women," said Daniel Becker, a pediatrician and public health expert in Rio de Janeiro. "People will look for an abortion."

Women's rights organizations are advocating legal abortion in the case of women who contract Zika, a move that so far has been only taken by Colombia's health ministry.

In Brazil, a group of researchers, activists and lawyers plans to petition the Supreme Court to allow abortions for women who have the virus, by-passing an increasingly conservative Congress where Evangelical lawmakers are backing a bill to restrict abortion even in cases of rape.

The same group won a ruling in 2012 to extend legal abortion to anencephaly, a defect in which the baby is born without parts of the skull and brain and almost always dies shortly after.

With Brazil's health care system already over-stretched, the future for many mothers could be grim if the Supreme Court does not act, said Debora Diniz, a law professor leading the campaign.

"We will soon have a generation of poor women whose destiny will be to look after extremely dependent children full-time," she said.

(Reporting by Anthony Boadle; Additional reporting by Antonia Eklund in Rio de Janeiro and Julia Cobb in Bogota; Editing by Kieran Murray)

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