US deploys newly minted bird flu plan to protect humans, poultry

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Turkeys In Indiana Infected With Deadly Bird Flu

CHICAGO (Reuters) -- U.S. farm and health officials are racing to assess the threat that a type of bird flu never before seen in the country poses to humans and poultry, employing emergency plans drawn up in the wake of a devastating outbreak in birds last year.

READ MORE: Treatment for crippling disease takes a new turn

The federal government sprang into action on Friday after confirmation overnight that the virus had hit an Indiana turkey farm, alerting other states to the danger and putting workers who might have been exposed to the virus under surveillance.

Last year's outbreak led to the deaths of more than 48 million chickens and turkeys, either killed by the virus or culled to contain it. No cases were reported in humans.

Strains similar to the new virus, known as H7N8, have on rare occasions made people ill and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state officials aim to reduce the risk of human infection.

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US deploys newly minted bird flu plan to protect humans, poultry
This undated handout image provided by Science and the University of Tokyo shows infectious particles of the avian H7N9 virus emerging from a cell. Scientists who sparked an outcry by creating easier-to-spread versions of the bird flu want to try such experiments again using a worrisome new strain. Since it broke out in China in March, the H7N9 bird flu has infected more than 130 people and killed 43. Leading flu researchers say that genetically engineering this virus in the lab could help track whether itâs changing in the wild to become a bigger threat. They announced the pending plans Wednesday in letters to the journals Science and Nature. (AP Photo/Takeshi Noda/University of Tokyo, Science)
Thomas 'Tom' Vilsack, secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), speaks during an interview in Washington, D.C., U.S., on Monday, June 8, 2015. Government spending to fight the worst U.S. bird flu outbreak and compensate farmers for their losses will exceed the $410 million so far budgeted and may top a half-billion dollars, Vilsack said. Photographer: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg via Getty Images
FILE - In this Nov. 16, 2009 file photo, chickens stand in their cages at a farm near Stuart, Iowa. Discovery of the bird flu on an Iowa turkey farm has raised serious concerns that the bird killer could find its way into chicken barns in the nation’s top egg-producing state and rapidly decimate the flocks that provide the U.S. with its breakfast staple. (AP Photo/Charlie Neibergall, File)
Workers in protective clothing work at the Daybreak Foods Inc. hen farm in Jefferson County near Lake Mills, Wis., Friday, April 24, 2015. There are two avian flu outbreaks in Jefferson county. The virus is lethal to birds, but is not expected to be a risk to people or the food supply. (AP Photo/Andy Manis)
Workers in protective clothing work at a hen farm in Jefferson County near Lake Mills, Wis., Friday, April 24, 2015. There are two avian flu outbreaks in Jefferson county. The virus is lethal to birds, but is not expected to be a risk to people or the food supply. (AP Photo/Andy Manis)
Workers in protective clothing work at the Daybreak Foods Inc. hen farm in Jefferson County near Lake Mills, Wis., Friday, April 24, 2015. There are two avian flu outbreaks in Jefferson county. The virus is lethal to birds, but is not expected to be a risk to people or the food supply. (AP Photo/Andy Manis)
Indian workers spread disinfectant after an operation to cull chickens at Venkateshwara Hatcheries in Thoroor village in Ranga Reddy district, some 55 kilometers from Hyderabad on April 15, 2015. Five chicks were found to be infected with H5N1 avian influenza on regular testing of samples belonging to the farm of a poultry farmer Srinivas Reddy. The authorities ordered the culling of 150,000 birds in a kilometre radius on poultry farms, although no cases of human infections were identified so far, according to Ranga Reddy district officials. AFP PHOTO / Noah SEELAM (Photo credit should read NOAH SEELAM/AFP/Getty Images)
Indian workers spread disinfectant after an operation to cull chickens at Venkateshwara Hatcheries in Thoroor village in Ranga Reddy district, some 55 kilometers from Hyderabad on April 15, 2015. Five chicks were found to be infected with H5N1 avian influenza on regular testing of samples belonging to the farm of a poultry farmer Srinivas Reddy. The authorities ordered the culling of 150,000 birds in a kilometre radius on poultry farms, although no cases of human infections were identified so far, according to Ranga Reddy district officials. AFP PHOTO / Noah SEELAM (Photo credit should read NOAH SEELAM/AFP/Getty Images)
Indian health workers dump bags of dead chickens after a culling operation at Venkateshwara Hatcheries in Thoroor village in Ranga Reddy district, some 55 kilometers from Hyderabad on April 15, 2015. Five chicks were found to be infected with H5N1 avian influenza on regular testing of samples belonging to the farm of a poultry farmer Srinivas Reddy. The authorities ordered the culling of 150,000 birds in a kilometre radius on poultry farms, although no cases of human infections were identified so far, according to Ranga Reddy district officials. AFP PHOTO / Noah SEELAM (Photo credit should read NOAH SEELAM/AFP/Getty Images)
Indian health workers carry dead chickens in bags after a culling operation at Venkateshwara Hatcheries in Thoroor village in Ranga Reddy district, some 55 kilometers from Hyderabad on April 15, 2015. Five chicks were found to be infected with H5N1 avian influenza on regular testing of samples belonging to the farm of a poultry farmer Srinivas Reddy. The authorities ordered the culling of 150,000 birds in a kilometre radius on poultry farms, although no cases of human infections were identified so far, according to Ranga Reddy district officials. AFP PHOTO / Noah SEELAM (Photo credit should read NOAH SEELAM/AFP/Getty Images)
Dead chicken, right, lie at a poultry farm in Katmandu, Nepal, Thursday, Aug. 1, 2013. A Nepalese official said the government has banned the sale and transport of chicken and all poultry products in the capital city to prevent the spread of the H5N1 bird flu virus. Agriculture Ministry spokesman Prabhakar Pathak said Thursday that the virus has been detected in several poultry farms in Katmandu and surrounding areas. No human casualties have been reported. (AP Photo/Bikram Rai)
In this April 13, 2014 photo provided by Kumamoto Prefecture, chickens are seen at a farm where H5 virus was detected in two birds on Sunday, in Taragicho, western Japan. The 112,000 chickens were ordered culled on Monday, April 14 after the two tested positive for a highly pathogenic avian influenza in the town. (AP Photo/Kumamoto Prefecture)
In this Tuesday, Jan. 21, 2014 photo, live chickens are kept in a cage at a wholesale poultry market in Shanghai. A spate of bird flu cases since the beginning of the year in China has experts watching closely as millions of people and poultry are on the move ahead of the Lunar New Year holiday, the world's largest annual human migration. (AP Photo)
Ans Hermans throws her chickens in their air, releasing them after more than two months indoors, in Nunhem, south east Netherlands, Monday, May 1, 2006. The Netherlands' Agriculture Ministry lifted an order keeping all domestic poultry indoors, as fears over an outbreak of birdflu eased. (AP Photo/ Ermindo Armino)
Hens are seen inside a chicken farm in Baexem, south-east Netherlands, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2006. After two dead swans in neighbouring Germany had been preliminarily tested positive for the deadly H5N1 bird flu strain, the Dutch agriculture ministry Wednesday urged commercial poultry farmers to get their birds indoors as soon as possible as a protective measure to prevent an outbreak of bird flu. (AP Photo/John Peters)
Poultry farmer Vermeij feeds his chickens inside his chicken farm in Baexem, south-east Netherlands, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2006. After two dead swans in neighbouring Germany had been preliminarily tested positive for the deadly H5N1 bird flu strain, the Dutch agriculture ministry Wednesday urged commercial poultry farmers to get their birds indoors as soon as possible as a protective measure to prevent an outbreak of bird flu. (AP Photo/John Peters)
Ans Hermans throws her chicken in the air, releasing it after more than two months indoors, in Nunhem, south east Netherlands, Monday, May 1, 2006. The Netherlands' Agriculture Ministry lifted an order keeping all domestic poultry indoors, as fears over an outbreak of birdflu eased. (AP Photo/ Ermindo Armino)
Hens are seen inside a chicken farm in Baexem, south-east Netherlands, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2006. After two dead swans in neighbouring Germany had been preliminarily tested positive for the deadly H5N1 bird flu strain, the Dutch agriculture ministry Wednesday urged commercial poultry farmers to get their birds indoors as soon as possible as a protective measure to prevent an outbreak of bird flu. (AP Photo/John Peters)
A shelduck receives vaccination against Bird Flu at Blijdorp Zoo in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Tuesday, Dec. 13, 2005. The zoo is believed to be the first in Europe to begin inoculation against the H5 strains of bird virus, including the H5N1 strain that has swept through flocks and killed at least 69 people since 2003. (AP Photo/Fred Ernst)
Hens are seen inside a chicken farm in Baexem, south-east Netherlands, Thursday, Feb. 16, 2006. After two dead swans in neighbouring Germany had been preliminarily tested positive for the deadly H5N1 bird flu strain, the Dutch agriculture ministry Wednesday urged commercial poultry farmers to get their birds indoors as soon as possible as a protective measure to prevent an outbreak of bird flu. (AP Photo/John Peters)
Dutch State Secretary Henk Bleker (C) puts on a mask during a visit to a turkey farm affected by a bout of the bird flu virus in Kelpen-Oler on March 19, 2012. All 42,700 turkeys at the farm will be slaughtered. AFP PHOTO / ANP MARCEL VAN HOORN netherlands out (Photo credit should read MARCEL VAN HOORN/AFP/Getty Images)
Chart shows the number of bird’s with bird flu since March; 2c x 3 inches; 96.3 mm x 76 mm;
This photo provided by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources shows chickens in a trench on a farm in northwest Iowa. Millions of dead chickens and turkeys are decomposing in fly-swarmed piles near dozens of Iowa farms, culled because of a bird flu virus that swept through the state's large poultry operations. (Iowa Department of Natural Resources via AP)
EAGLE GROVE, IA - MAY 17: A gate blocks the entrance of a farm operated by Daybreak Foods which has been designated 'bio security area' on May 17, 2015 near Eagle Grove, Iowa. Daybreak Foods is one of several large-scale commercial poultry facilities is Iowa reported to have been hit with a highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza which has forced poultry producers to kill off millions of birds in an attempt to stifle the spread of the illness. A road leading up to the front of the farm has been closed to outside traffic with a checkpoint established. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)
Nick Wells puts eggs in a cooler at the Waveland Cafe, Friday, June 19, 2015, in Des Moines, Iowa. Restaurants are struggling to deal with higher egg prices and an inability to get enough eggs and egg products in the midst of a shortage brought about by a bird flu virus that wiped out millions of chickens on commercial farms this spring.(AP Photo/Charlie Neibergall)
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They also want to blunt the impact on the poultry industry, which suffered billions of dollars in losses in last year's outbreak. Egg supplies shrank and prices surged to record highs.

"We are hopeful that as we respond very quickly to this virus that we can get it contained and hopefully not see an extensive outbreak like we did last year," said T.J. Myers, an associate deputy administrator for the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Even if the response is fast, the government's ability to contain the disease is far from certain. Officials have never dealt with this strain before, and wild birds are thought to spread the disease to farms through feces dropped from the air, making infections difficult to prevent.

U.S. officials have taken to heart lessons from last year's outbreak, when USDA workers could not always kill infected flocks fast enough to contain the virus. Workers are now trying to cull sick flocks within 24 hours of diagnoses, following a goal the agency set in the autumn.

Most turkeys at the infected farm were killed within a day, but it was 29 hours before all were dead, said Denise Derrer, spokeswoman for the Indiana State Board of Animal Health.

No human infections associated with the new strain have ever been reported, according to the USDA.

ESPECIALLY DEADLY TO POULTRY

Still, people who interacted with infected turkeys were quickly placed under a new monitoring plan developed in response to last year's outbreak, Michael Jhung, a medical officer at the CDC, told Reuters. The agency also plans to conduct lab tests and animal studies of the virus.

Similar H7 viruses - which share the same surface proteins - have caused problems in people ranging from mild, flu-like symptoms to serious respiratory illness, Jhung said.

"We know very little about this particular virus because we haven't seen it, but we want to take as many precautions as we can to prevent any human infections," he said.

There is always uncertainty around any new strain of influenza because the virus acquires mutations passing from host to host.

The Indiana flock appears to have become infected when a less dangerous form of the virus in the area mutated, said John Clifford, the USDA's chief veterinarian.

Limited genetic data from preliminary diagnostic tests last week showed this H7N8 virus originated from North America, while last year's strains had roots in Europe and Asia, government officials said.

North American viruses have typically posed less of a threat to humans than viruses from the Asian Avian H5N1 lineage, said Carol Cardona, an avian flu expert at the University of Minnesota.

Viruses in the H5N1 lineage "are super bad guys," Cardona said. Still, outbreaks of North American viruses in Pennsylvania in 1983 and British Columbia in 2000 were "devastating and difficult" for poultry, she added.

MOBILIZING PERSONNEL, EQUIPMENT

In Indiana, the USDA quickly deployed personnel and equipment to assist the state with culling birds and testing nearby flocks, said Bret Marsh, Indiana's state veterinarian.

Marsh alerted other states about the new virus outbreak on an emergency conference call in the early hours on Friday.

"We realize that if it's indeed of wild bird origin, they know no boundaries so we want to make sure that everyone is properly informed," Marsh told reporters.

Bird flu cost the U.S. poultry industry an estimated $3.3 billion in 2015 as farmers had to destroy infected flocks and halt production for months. Importers also cut back on trade in the $5.7 billion poultry and egg export market, and some have already limited shipments because of this new outbreak.

U.S. negotiators have worked with trading partners in the past year to focus restrictions on infected counties or states, instead of blocking shipments from the entire country, said Toby Moore, spokesman for the USA Poultry & Egg Export Council. That could minimize the economic burden of outbreaks.

Farmers also have strengthened cleaning and security practices in a bid to keep out the virus, with many requiring workers to change their shoes before entering barns and barring delivery trucks from getting too close to poultry houses.

"In the poultry business, there's a positive determination that this new strain not have any chance at proving what it might be able to do," said Keith Williams, a spokesman for the National Turkey Federation, a trade group.

Watch more coverage:

Avian Flu Confirmed in Southwest Indiana

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