Ticks carrying Lyme disease in almost half of US counties

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Over Half of US Has Lyme Disease Carrying Ticks

(Reuters Health) - Ticks that can spread Lyme disease now live in almost half of U.S. counties, according to a new study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Varieties of the blacklegged tick that may carry bacteria responsible for Lyme disease are present in 45 percent of counties nationwide, compared with just 30 percent in 1998, researchers found.

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"It's important for people to be aware that there may be ticks in areas where they haven't seen them previously so that they can take steps to help protect themselves and their families," lead study author Rebecca Eisen, a research biologist at the CDC, said by email.

Since the late 1990s, the number of reported Lyme disease cases in the U.S. has more than tripled, Eisen and colleagues report in the Journal of Medical Entomology.

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, also known as deer ticks, and the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus. These ticks are typically found in wooded and grassy areas.

Know the facts of Lyme disease:

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Ticks carrying Lyme disease in almost half of US counties

Know the facts

  • Lyme disease is transmitted by black-legged deer ticks
  • Lyme is a result of infection with the bacterium, Borrelia Burgdorferi
  • There is no evidence Lyme can be transmitted by any other mode
  • All ticks do not transmit disease

(Photo credit: AP) 

Be proactive

  • Avoid tick bites, especially in areas known to harbor deer ticks.
  • Stay out of wooded areas or areas with high grasses
  • When hiking, stick to the trail
  • Cover as much skin as possible, with loose breathable clothing
  • Repel ticks with DEET or permethrin. Use according to directions. Adults should apply on children to avoid ingestion or inhalation.For more information on insect repellants, visit the EPA guide

(Photo credit: Shutterstock)

Check for ticks

  • Infected ticks have to be attached to the skin for 36-48 hours
  • After coming in from the outdoors, check yourself and your kids
  • Black legged ticks can be as small as a poppy seed, so the search has to be very thorough
  • Look in hard to see areas, like the groin, scalp and armpits
  • Pets cannot transmit disease, but they can bring ticks inside the home. Check them as well.

(Photo credit: Shutterstock)

Look for symptoms
Symptoms of early Lyme disease usually appear within 3 – 30 days after infection and include:

  • Red, expanding bulls-eye rash starting at the site of the bite
  • Fatigue
  • Fever and chills
  • Muscle and joint aches
  • Swollen lymph nodes

70-80% of patients will get the trademark Erythema Migrans rash.  Because symptoms are vague, being vigilant and aware is key to getting timely treatment

(Photo credit: Getty) 

Seek medical help

  • If you suspect you have Lyme disease, see your doctor immediately.
  • Diagnosis is best made by history and symptoms.
  • Blood tests can be a useful adjunct in some cases.
  • If untreated, the following symptoms can occur:
    • Rash on other parts of the body
    • Bell's palsy – paralysis of the facial muscles
    • Meningitis symptoms including headaches and neck stiffness
    • Large joint pain
    • Heart Palpitations and dizziness

(Photo credit: Alamy)

Sen. Kemp Hannon, R-Garden City, speaks during a news conference on Lyme and tick-borne diseases on Wednesday, June 18, 2014, in Albany, N.Y. New York senators are proposing several measures to deal with tick-borne Lyme disease that appears to be spreading across the state. The task force report cites 462 cases reported through the first week of June in New York and a recent federal estimate of 300,000 new cases annually with only a fraction actually reported. (AP Photo/Mike Groll)
In a Thursday, June 12, 2014 photo, Samantha Durfey, left, and Christiaan King drag corduroy cloth squares through underbrush to collect ticks during field work at the Pine Bush Preserve in Albany, N.Y.Researchers from Paul Smith's College, the Trudeau Institute and state Health Department have launched a study to document the spread of ticks and Lyme disease into the Adirondacks. (AP Photo/Mary Esch) (AP Photo/Mary Esch)
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Bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi cause Lyme disease. Common symptoms can include fever, headache, and fatigue, all of which can be easily confused with the flu. Some patients, but not all, develop a characteristic "bull's eye" rash soon after the tick bite.

If caught early, Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotics. But untreated Lyme disease can lead to lasting cognitive problems, joint and muscle pain and mood disorders.

To assess changes in the tick population, researchers analyzed data reported by counties using the same surveillance methods from 1998.

They found deer ticks in 1,420 out of 3,110 counties in the continental U.S., or about 46 percent of counties, and found western blacklegged ticks in 111 counties, or about 4 percent. Combined, this is a 45 percent increase from 1998 when ticks were reported in 1,058 counties.

Deer ticks are now established in 842 counties across 35 states, compared with 396 counties in 32 states in 1998. These ticks used to be concentrated in northeastern states but have move west and south.

Western blacklegged ticks are now established in 95 counties across six states, up from 90 counties in 1998. These ticks remain concentrated in Pacific coast states.

Outside of the U.S., ticks carry the disease in forested areas of Asia, northwestern, central and eastern Europe, according to the World Health Organization.

Even though the tick population is spreading, the risk of catching Lyme disease isn't the same everywhere the ticks live, because the number of ticks infected with Lyme bacteria varies, as do the odds that infected ticks may bite people, Eisen noted.

To minimize the risk of catching Lyme disease from ticks, people can spray skin and clothing with insect repellants such as DEET or lemon permethrin, said Dr. Keith Berndtson of the Center for Research on Biotoxin Associated Illness in Pocomoke, Maryland. Long sleeves and pants legs tucked into socks can also keep ticks away, and light-colored fabrics can make the ticks easier to spot.

After a day outdoors, tossing all clothes in the dryer for about 20 minutes can kill most ticks. People should also have a friend or family member check their body for ticks, and check any pets. Saving ticks for testing can also help assess whether the bugs carried bacteria that can lead to Lyme disease, Berndtson, who wasn't involve in the study, added by email.

Environmental and climate changes may be helping ticks to expand their territory in the U.S., noted Dr. Bobbi Pritt, director of clinical parasitology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.

"Warmer temperatures, increases in rainfall, and milder winters can favor tick survival," Pritt, who wasn't involved in the study, said by email. "These factors can also favor survival and expansion of the mammals and birds that the ticks feed on."

SOURCE: http://bit.ly/1OslYEC Journal of Medical Entomology, published online January 18, 2016.

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