The Supreme Court will hear a case this week that could radically alter college admissions in America

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Supreme Court Will Revisit Affirmative Action

The Supreme Court will hear arguments Wednesday in a case that revolves around whether it's legal for colleges to consider applicants' race to ensure a diverse student body — a decades-old policy known as affirmative action.

The case focuses on the University of Texas at Austin, which automatically admits the top 10% of students from every class in the state.

Students who don't get in through the so-called Top-10 plan can still gain admission, and the university considers a number of factors including extracurricular activities and race.

Texas native Abigail Fisher — who was rejected by UT in 2008 — is challenging the school's use of race for students who aren't accepted through the Top-10 plan. Fisher claims UT-Austin's policy violates the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, and that the school admitted minority students who were less qualified than she was.

The main issue here is whether UT-Austin needed to consider race since its Top-10 plan already ensured the class was racially diverse. Since many universities and colleges specifically consider applicants' race, this case could have far-reaching implications.

As SCOTUSBlog's Lyle Denniston noted, "[T]he stakes might turn out to be huge: it could be that the result would go so far as to make it unconstitutional for public universities and colleges to take race into account in any way in choosing their entering classes."

For its part, UT-Austin argues it needs affirmative action in addition to the Top-10 plan so it can achieve "diversity within diversity."

The Top-10 plan achieves racial diversity because schools in the US (including Texas) tend to be segregated by race. However, the black and Hispanic students admitted under that plan often come from majority black or Hispanic schools with students from lower-income families. The white students who are accepted under that plan tend to come from more affluent schools.

UT "doesn't want all of the African-American and Latino students on campus to be students from under-served, often under-funded inner-city or rural-school districts," University of Michigan Law School professor Richard Primus told Business Insider. "UT also wants to admit African-Americans and Latinos who finished in the 13th or 14th percentiles of fancy high schools in suburban Dallas."

One thing UT is trying to avoid, Primus added, is allowing the Top-10 plan to be a "device that enforces racial stereotype."

See more on Affirmative Action cases and protests around changing the law:

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The Supreme Court will hear a case this week that could radically alter college admissions in America
WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: Students protest in support of affirmative action, outside the Supreme Court during the hearing of 'Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action' on October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The case revolves around affirmative action and whether or not states have the right to ban schools from using race as a consideration in school admissions. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 15: A woman protests in support of affirmative action, outside the Supreme Court during the hearing of 'Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action' on October 15, 2013 in Washington, DC. The case revolves around affirmative action and whether or not states have the right to ban schools from using race as a consideration in school admissions. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
Abigail Fisher, who sued the University of Texas when she was not offered a spot at the university's flagship Austin campus in 2008, stands at a news conference at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, Monday, June 24, 2013. The U.S. Supreme Court ruling on affirmative action in higher education will have "no impact" on the University of Texas' admissions policy, school president Bill Powers said Monday, noting UT will continue to use race as a factor in some cases. (AP Photo/Charles Dharapak)
WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 14: Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette (R) speaks at a press conference with Jennifer Gratz, CEO of XIV Foundation, the day before going before the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of 'Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action,' on October 14, 2013 in Washington, DC. 'Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action' centers around affirmative action in higher education and whether or not a state has the constitutional right to ban college admissions from giving 'preferential treatment' to potential students based on race during the admissions process. In 2006, the Supreme Court ruled in Grutter v. Bollinger stating that states have the right to consider race in the admissions process as part of an 'individualized, holistic review of each applicant's file' - whether or not the state's right to consider race is an obligation is what is at stake. In 2006 the voters of Michigan passed an amendment by 58% banning racial considerations in a college admissions process, which the Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action is now fighting. (Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: People wait in line to enter the U.S. Supreme Court on October 10, 2012 in Washington, DC. Today the high court is scheduled to hear arguments on Fisher V. University of Texas at Austin, and are tasked with ruling on whether the university's consideration of race in admissions is constitutional. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 10: Travis Ballie holds a sign that reads (Diversity Works) in front of the U.S. Supreme Court on October 10, 2012 in Washington, DC. Today the high court is scheduled to hear arguments on Fisher v University of Texas at Austin, and are tasked with ruling on whether the university's consideration of race in admissions is constitutional. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
SAN FRANCISCO, CA - FEBRUARY 13: Students hoping for a repeal of California's Proposition 209 hold signs as they protest outside of the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals on February 13, 2012 in San Francisco, California. A Federal appeals court will hear arguments in a lawsuit that wants to overturn Proposition 209, a voter approved measure that prohibits affirmative action at state universities. (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
Jheanelle Wilkins of New Castle, Del., right, and Neo Moneri of Beltsville, Md., participate in a rally outside the Supreme Court in Washington, Wednesday, Oct. 10, 2012, supporting the University of Texas.. The Supreme Court is taking up a challenge to a University of Texas program that considers race in some college admissions. The case could produce new limits on affirmative action at universities, or roll it back entirely. (AP Photo/Susan Walsh)
University of Michigan student Ebrie Benton, left, demonstrates outside the Federal courthouse, Wednesday, March 7, 2012, in Cincinnati, where the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals was hearing oral arguments in their review of their ruling last summer that Proposal 2, the ban on affirmative action in Michigan, is unconstitutional. (AP Photo/Al Behrman)
Students demonstrate outside the Federal Courthouse, Wednesday, March 7, 2012, in Cincinnati, where the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals was hearing oral arguments in their review of their ruling last summer that Proposal 2, the ban on affirmative action in Michigan, is unconstitutional. (AP Photo/Al Behrman)
In this photo from April 6, 2012, protesters and students stage a sit in protest at the Sproul Hall Student Services Office at the University of California in Berkeley, Calif. The U.S. Supreme Court is set to revisit the thorny issue of affirmative action less than a decade after it endorsed the use of race as a factor in college admissions. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu)
FILE - In this Feb. 13, 2012, file photo, demonstrators protest outside of the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals after a panel heard oral arguments in San Francisco in a lawsuit seeking to overturn Proposition 209, which barred racial, ethnic or gender preferences in public education, employment and contracting. As the Supreme Court revisits the use of race in college admissions in October 2012, critics of affirmative action are hopeful the justices are poised to roll back the practice. A new report out Wednesday, Oct. 3, 2012 offers a big reason for their optimism: evidence the nine states where leading public universities don't use affirmative action have succeeded in bringing diversity to their campuses through race-neutral means. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma, File)
Demonstrator Maricruz Lopez, right, protests outside of the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals after a panel heard oral arguments in San Francisco, Monday, Feb. 13, 2012. More than 15 years after California banned affirmative action, a federal appeals court on Monday heard a legal challenge to the ban on considering race in public college admissions. The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals heard arguments in a lawsuit seeking to overturn Proposition 209, which barred racial, ethnic or gender preferences in public education, employment and contracting. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma)
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This week will actually be the second time the high court will hear the case of Fisher v. Texas. In June 2013, the high court sent the case back to a federal appeals court to review the UT-Austin policy under a tougher standard known as strict scrutiny.

In a 2003 case called Grutter v. Bollinger, the Supreme Court ruled that a "narrowly tailored use of race in admissions decisions to further a compelling interest" in diversity did not violate the US Constitution.

In his majority opinion when the Fisher decision first came down in 2013, Justice Anthony Kennedy ruled that the appellate court did not scrutinize the UT policy closely enough to ensure it met the standard set by Grutter v. Bollinger.

After looking at the case a second time, the US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit still found the UT policy didn't violate the Constitution. Fisher petitioned the Supreme Court, which decided to take the case up again.

As The Wall Street Journal noted, the high court is expected to at least pare back the use of race in college admissions. One of the court's liberals, Justice Elena Kagan, has recused herself from this case, and the odds wouldn't be good even with her vote.

"Four justices have all but demanded that government forsake the use of race for purposes of diversity," UCLA law professor Adam Winkler told Business Insider in an email. "Justice Kennedy, the swing justice, has never voted to uphold a racial preference."

Winkler still doesn't believe Kennedy is prepared to end race-based affirmative action. In the event that Kennedy sides with the liberals and there's a tie, the high court will affirm the appellate court's decision in favor of UT without creating any binding precedent. In that case, the high court will likely be prepared to take up affirmative action again.

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