Arkansas a refuge from rising seas in Marshall Islands

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Arkansas a refuge from rising seas in Marshall Islands
In this Nov. 7, 2015 photo, local resident Valentino Keimbar stands in the shade of a palm tree as he waits for friends for a game of basketball on Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
A Marshallese man grills chicken at the Marshallese Tabernacle Church, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A Marshallese woman prepares fish to be fried at the Marshallese Tabernacle Church, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Patrons visit a restaurant, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in downtown Springdale, Arkansas. While Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A boy sits in the Marshallese Tabernacle Church, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Marshallese women prepare fish to be fried at the Marshallese Tabernacle Church, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A school bus passes the Tyson chicken plant, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A Marshallese man waits next to a mural, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in downtown Springdale, Arkansas. While Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A man walks past a train depot, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Carmen Chong Gum, the Marshallese consul general in Springdale, says while people still move for better jobs and health care, some are now citing climate change as a factor. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A Marshallese man grills chicken at the Marshallese Tabernacle Church, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A truck loaded with chickens passes the Tyson plant, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A Marshallese man stands outside the Jakejeboleo market, a gathering place for Marshallese, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A Marshallese man grills chicken at the Marshallese Tabernacle Church, Friday, Nov. 20, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Marshallese men congregate in a back room of the Jakejeboleo market, a gathering place for Marshallese, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Korn Aloka plays the keyboard at the Jakejeboleo market, a gathering place for Marshallese, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. While Arkansas may hold hope and promise for some, others on the Marshall Islands say they plan to stay no matter what. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Mitchell Capelle, left, and Larry Muller, run a Marshallese radio station, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Daniel Kumtak plays pool in a back room of the Jakejeboleo market, a gathering place for Marshallese, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
A map with push pins marking where Marshallese live hangs in the Marshallese Counsel General office, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Carmen Chong Gum, the Marshallese consul general in Springdale, says while people still move for better jobs and health care, some are now citing climate change as a factor. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Korn Aloka smokes outside the Jakejeboleo market, a gathering place for Marshallese, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Counsel General Carmen Chong Gum, right, talks with Larry Muller at her office, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Gum says while people still move for better jobs and health care, some are now citing climate change as a factor. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Clocks reflecting different time zones hang in the Marshallese Counsel General office, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Counsel General Carmen Chong Gum says while people still move for better jobs and health care, some are now citing climate change as a factor. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
Marshallese men congregate in the back of the Jakejeboleo market, a gathering place for Marshallese, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. While Marshallese have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, Springdale has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have grown in the thousands. Some jokingly call it âSpringdale Atoll,â and thereâs even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
In this Nov. 8, 2015 photo, global warming activist Milan Loeak, left, and poet Kathy Jetnil-Kijiner walk along the shore at low tide in Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Two king tide events have hit the small atoll in 2015 causing massive flooding and damage unmooring many sea craft and beaching them or destroying them where they lie. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
In this Nov. 9, 2015 photo, mothers and children enjoy an afternoon game of volleyball on a beach in Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
Xavier Gonzalez prepares food at the Jakejeboleo market, a gathering place for Marshallese, Thursday, Nov. 19, 2015, in Springdale, Arkansas. Marshallese can live and work in the U.S. under the terms of an agreement between the countries. And for more than three decades, they have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains seeking better education, jobs and health care. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
In this Nov. 9, 2015 photo, mothers and children enjoy an afternoon game of volleyball on a beach in Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
In this Nov. 8, 2015 photo, global warming activist Milan Loeak, left, and poet Kathy Jetnil-Kijiner walk along the shore at low tide in Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Two king tide events have hit the small atoll in 2015 causing massive flooding and damage unmooring many sea craft and beaching them or destroying them where they lie. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
In this Nov. 7, 2015 photo, a woman washes clothes in a bucket in the yard of her home in Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
In this Nov. 7, 2015 photo, an excavator moves rock and sand to aid in the construction of sea walls around the airport on Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. A king tide event on July 3, 2015, the second this year caused wide flooding and damage around the atoll and closed many key industries including the airport. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
In this Nov. 5, 2015 photo, workers build a sea wall on Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Two king tide events hit the small atoll in 2015 causing massive flooding and damage unmooring many sea craft and beaching them or destroying them where they lie. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
This Nov. 5, 2015 aerial photo shows a boat that wrecked the back of Foreign Minister Tony de Brum's house on Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. A king tide that hit the small atoll on July 3, 2015 caused massive flooding and damage unmooring many sea crafts and beaching them or destroying them where they lie. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
In this Nov. 5, 2015 photo, Foreign Minister Tony de Brum cools off and relaxes with beer while he sits on a rock in Majuro Atoll, in the Marshall Islands. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
This Nov. 5, 2015 aerial photo shows a small uninhabited island that has slipped beneath the water line only showing a small pile of rocks at low tide on Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
In this Nov. 7, 2015 photo, an excavator moves rock and sand to aid in the construction of sea walls around the airport on Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. A king tide event on July 3, 2015, the second this year caused wide flooding and damage around the atoll and closed many key industries including the airport. Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. (AP Photo/Rob Griffith)
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MAJURO ATOLL, Marshall Islands (AP) — Valentino Keimbar hides from the intense heat in the shade of a breadfruit tree, waiting for his basketball game to begin. It was supposed to start a couple of hours ago, maybe three, but time matters little here on the Marshall Islands.

Keimbar would love to stay on this tiny string of atolls in the vast Pacific Ocean, which he considers a precious gift from his ancestors. But he fears hotter weather and rising seas may soon force everyone to go, and that many will choose an unlikely place 6,000 miles (nearly 10,000 kilometers) away: Springdale, Arkansas.

For more than three decades, Marshallese have moved in the thousands to the landlocked Ozark Mountains for better education, jobs and health care, thanks to an agreement that lets them live and work in the U.S. This historical connection makes it an obvious destination for those facing a new threat: global warming.

Keimbar, 29, last year traveled to Springdale seeking medical treatment for his 6-year-old son. Now he's considering moving permanently to secure a solid future for his children.

"Probably in 10 to 20 years from now, we're all going to move," he said.

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EDITOR'S NOTE: This story is part of an occasional series focusing on the science, the costs and the challenges of climate change around the world ahead of a critical summit in Paris.

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Refuge Sought from Marshall Islands' Rising Seas

Climate change poses an existential threat to places like the Marshall Islands, which protrude only 6 feet (2 meters) above sea level in most places. King tides, when the alignment of the Earth, moon and sun combine to produce the most extreme tidal effects, and storm surges are getting worse, resident say, causing floods that contaminate fresh water, kill crops, and erode land. As a result, some Marshallese think an exodus as inevitable, while others are planning to stay and fight.

Foreign Minister Tony de Brum is a vocal advocate for keeping global warming to a minimum, a position he'll be pushing when world leaders meet in Paris next week seeking a way to limit fossil fuel emissions.

Growing up on the lagoon, de Brum said, he loved catching rabbitfish off Enebok Island, which was lush with coconut and breadfruit trees. But in recent years, the small, uninhabited island has slipped beneath the water. At low tide, all that remains is an exposed pile of rocks that snags flotsam: a black sandal, some frayed green rope, a coconut sprouting a green shoot.

And in July, he recounted, lagoon waves whipped up by unusual winds swept a large yacht within a few feet of his bedroom window, and then beached it nearby.

De Brum said even a small rise in global temperatures would spell the demise of his country of 70,000. While many world leaders in Paris want to curb emissions enough to cap Earth's warming at 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius), de Brum is pushing for a target that's 25 percent lower.

"The thought of evacuation is repulsive to us," he said. "We think that the more reasonable thing to do is to seek to end this madness, this climate madness, where people think that smaller, vulnerable countries are expendable and therefore they can continue to do business as usual."

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The Marshallese who choose to leave have settled in Hawaii, Oklahoma and the Pacific Northwest, but Springdale has the most on the U.S. mainland and has taken on a special significance. Their numbers there have expanded to 6,000, nearly one-tenth of those who remain back home. Some jokingly call it "Springdale Atoll," and there's even a Marshallese consulate, the only one on the mainland U.S.

The pioneer was a man named John Moody, who moved in 1979 seeking an education and stayed for a job at Tyson Foods, one of the world's largest processors of chicken. Family and friends followed, and the population of Marshallese swelled after 1990.

"Arkansas is the land of opportunity," said Josen Kaious, from the Marshall Islands town of Laura, who's lived in Springdale before and plans to move back next year. "You can help your family, and do whatever you want."

Carmen Chong Gum, the Marshallese consul general in Springdale, said while people still move for better jobs and health care, some are now citing climate change as a factor.

Gum works in a two-story building just off downtown's main street. It's decorated with a U.S. map with push pins marking where Marshallese live, a bulletin board listing job opportunities, and posters depicting medicinal plants and tropical fish found in the Marshall Islands.

Her people now even have their own newspaper. The first edition, published this fall, was written entirely in Marshallese and featured half-page advertisements for Marshall Islands political candidates because Springdale residents can vote absentee.

Many candidates spent months campaigning in Springdale. One was Alfred Ned, who hoped to pick up votes with his pledge to convince Japan and the U.S. to clean up the trash they left on his atoll during World War II.

Gum said she tries to help people understand what's expected of them in their new country: Enrolling their kids in school. Not parking on the grass. Not making too much noise. Paying their utility bills on time. She said people tend to be much more relaxed about enforcing rules on the Marshall Islands.

There are also more serious challenges for those who move. While the agreement with the U.S. allows Marshallese to live and work in the U.S., they don't automatically become citizens, and most aren't eligible for welfare. That can result in hardship for any who suffer a serious illness or lose a job.

Life is sometimes hard in any case.

At the Tyson poultry plant where she works, Daisy Loeak has about two seconds to scan each freshly-killed Cornish hen that comes down the production line to decide if it's of premium quality. Any flaw like a bruised wing or a broken leg means it should be sold at a discount.

She routes the hens onto conveyor belts before they're packed into boxes and flash-frozen. Out of 300 workers at the plant, Loeak is one of about 120 Marshallese. She moved to Springdale in 2008 with her grandparents, who traveled to the U.S. for a funeral and ended up staying.

"It's Chickendale, not Springdale," said Loeak, whose real name is Daisina, but who adopted a version that's easier for Americans to pronounce. She wells up with tears as she talks about rising sea levels, and says she misses her homeland.

"In the Marshall Islands, it's just more carefree," she said. "You go where you want."

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Those who stay face their own challenges. At the Rita graveyard in Majuro, where many of his relatives are buried, Carlon Zedkaia watched in February as a king tide swept in and washed up against the base of gravestones, collapsing some and exposing human remains.

The tide flooded his nearby home, and he worries one day it will sweep right across from the sea to the lagoon, flooding all the land. He's upset about the damage to the graveyard and worries there will be no spot for him to be buried there.

"It's not our fault that the tide is getting higher," he said. "Just somebody else in this world that wants to get rich."

Poet Kathy Jetnil-Kijiner said the world needs to save her islands to save itself — that if the atolls are allowed to slip beneath the waves, the rest of the Pacific and the U.S. coastline would be next.

"What will happen to our culture? What will happen to our stories? What will happen to thousands of years of history?" she said. "What will happen to the next generation? They won't know where they're from. They'll be rootless. They'll just be wandering. And I don't want that to happen at all."

In August, the 600 residents on the small island of Kili effectively raised a white flag after the island was repeatedly buffeted by storms and flooding, sometimes cutting off residents completely from the more populous atolls.

The islanders are descendants of the Bikini atoll residents who were moved to make way for U.S. nuclear testing after World War II. They are now petitioning Washington to allow them to spend their resettlement trust fund money abroad, an option that would allow them to move to Arkansas or anywhere else they choose.

The U.S. seems amenable, said Jack Niedenthal, the Bikini trust liaison, but has yet to take the required Congressional action. Niedenthal said that while he will fight to stay, he sees an eventual evacuation of the Marshall Islands as almost inevitable.

"In the end it's like 60,000 people against 8 billion," he said. "And I don't know how you get the rest of the world to change their habits."

For some, the notion of exactly what constitutes a homeland is becoming fluid.

Sheldon Riklon, a Marshallese doctor who lives in Hawaii, said he's always wanted to return home to serve his people.

But after visiting Springdale last year, he's expanded his definition of the Marshall Islands to include Arkansas, and is considering moving there instead. He's encouraged by the potential of the Marshallese youth, many of whom are succeeding at school. And he said the friendliness of Arkansas may in the end be the thread that connects it to home.

"It definitely wasn't what I expected. I mean, besides the weather. It really opened up my eyes to the kindness of people there," he said. "It's really similar to the Marshallese lifestyle, and the way of dealing with visitors, in that they were very welcoming."

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Kissel reported from Springdale, Arkansas.

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Arkansas a refuge from rising seas in Marshall Islands
A participant holds a sign reading 'There is no Planet B' during the 'Global Climate March' organised by environmental NGOs on November 29, 2015 in Berlin on the eve of the official opening of a 195-nation UN climate summit in Paris. AFP PHOTO / JOHN MACDOUGALL / AFP / JOHN MACDOUGALL (Photo credit should read JOHN MACDOUGALL/AFP/Getty Images)
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LONDON, ENGLAND - NOVEMBER 29: Protesters march down Piccadilly during the London Climate March as part of march events around the globe on the same day on November 29, 2015 in London, England. On the eve of the UN Climate Summit in Paris, people across the world are taking to the streets to call for a climate agreement which will deliver a 100% renewable energy future. The London march has been billed as the biggest out of all the 2,200 due to take place around the world. (Photo by Chris Ratcliffe/Getty Images)
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Climate change demonstrators march to demand curbs to carbon pollution in London on November 29, 2015 on the eve of the climate summit in Paris. Oscar-winner Emma Thompson called on world leaders to grab the 'historic' opportunity to reach a deal on tackling climate change as she joined tens of thousands of environmental protesters in London today. AFP PHOTO / LEON NEAL / AFP / LEON NEAL (Photo credit should read LEON NEAL/AFP/Getty Images)
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Demonstrators lay on the ground in front of riot police during a rally against global warming on November 29, 2015 in Paris, a day ahead of the start of UN conference on climate change COP21. French police fired teargas November 29 to disperse climate change activists in Paris who threw objects at them during a demonstration ahead of key UN talks, AFP reporters said. AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGET / AFP / JOEL SAGET (Photo credit should read JOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
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LONDON, ENGLAND - NOVEMBER 29: Protesters march down Piccadilly during the London Climate March as part of march events around the globe on the same day on November 29, 2015 in London, England. On the eve of the UN Climate Summit in Paris, people across the world are taking to the streets to call for a climate agreement which will deliver a 100% renewable energy future. The London march has been billed as the biggest out of all the 2,200 due to take place around the world. (Photo by Chris Ratcliffe/Getty Images)
Climate change demonstrators march to demand curbs to carbon pollution in London on November 29, 2015 on the eve of the climate summit in Paris. Oscar-winner Emma Thompson called on world leaders to grab the 'historic' opportunity to reach a deal on tackling climate change as she joined tens of thousands of environmental protesters in London today. AFP PHOTO / LEON NEAL / AFP / LEON NEAL (Photo credit should read LEON NEAL/AFP/Getty Images)
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People hold hands to form a human chain during a gathering called by ecologist organisation 'Altenatiba' in Lyon, central-eastern France, on November 29, 2015, protesting against global warming a day ahead of the United Nations Conference on Climate Change (COP21) held in Paris. AFP PHOTO / ROMAIN LAFABREGUE. / AFP / ROMAIN LAFABREGUE (Photo credit should read ROMAIN LAFABREGUE/AFP/Getty Images)
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Protestors clash with riot police during a rally against global warming on November 29, 2015 in Paris, a day ahead of the start of UN conference on climate change COP21. French riot police used teargas to contain on November 29 in Paris some hundred protestors, many masked and others threw projectiles, according to journalist from AFP. AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGET / AFP / JOEL SAGET (Photo credit should read JOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
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A masked demonstrator carries a sign reading 'Monsanto: This nightmare wants to sell our dreams' during a rally against global warming on November 29, 2015 in Paris, a day ahead of the start of UN conference on climate change COP21. AFP PHOTO / FRANCOIS GUILLOT / AFP / FRANCOIS GUILLOT (Photo credit should read FRANCOIS GUILLOT/AFP/Getty Images)
A protestor dressed in reference to Star Wars stands before a banner reading 'Defend the climate and democracy, you must' during a rally against global warming on November 29, 2015 in Paris, a day ahead of the start of UN conference on climate change COP21. AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGET / AFP / JOEL SAGET (Photo credit should read JOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
Participants hold flags and a balloon reading 'Save the climate, stop coal' during the 'Global Climate March' organised by environmental NGOs on November 29, 2015 in Berlin on the eve of the official opening of a 195-nation UN climate summit in Paris. AFP PHOTO / JOHN MACDOUGALL / AFP / JOHN MACDOUGALL (Photo credit should read JOHN MACDOUGALL/AFP/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - NOVEMBER 29: Protesters dressed as tigers on Park Lane during the London Climate March as part of march events around the globe on the same day on November 29, 2015 in London, England. On the eve of the UN Climate Summit in Paris, people across the world are taking to the streets to call for a climate agreement which will deliver a 100% renewable energy future. The London march has been billed as the biggest out of all the 2,200 due to take place around the world. (Photo by Chris Ratcliffe/Getty Images)
This photo taken on November 29, 2015 in Paris shows a large-scale marionnette behind a sign reading 'You are not a marionnette' during a rally against global warming, a day ahead of the start of UN conference on climate change COP21. AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGET / AFP / JOEL SAGET (Photo credit should read JOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
Participants hold balloons reading 'Save the climate, stop coal' during the 'Global Climate March' organised by environmental NGOs on November 29, 2015 in Berlin on the eve of the official opening of a 195-nation UN climate summit in Paris. AFP PHOTO / JOHN MACDOUGALL / AFP / JOHN MACDOUGALL (Photo credit should read JOHN MACDOUGALL/AFP/Getty Images)
Participants hold a banner reading 'Save the earth's climate' while taking part in a demonstration organised by environmental NGOs on November 29, 2015 in Frankfurt am Main, central Germany on the eve of the official opening of a 195-nation UN climate summit in Paris. AFP PHOTO / DPA / FRANK RUMPENHORST GERMANY OUT / AFP / DPA / FRANK RUMPENHORST (Photo credit should read FRANK RUMPENHORST/AFP/Getty Images)
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