Does sex still sell? Abercrombie & Fitch and other sexy brands tone it down

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Abercrombie & Fitch Dials Back The Sex

In its heyday, Abercrombie & Fitch was notorious for its sexy marketing campaigns.

Some of the advertisements bordered on pornographic, and its quarterly catalog was often outrageous.

And who could forget Abercrombie's iconic shirtless men, who greeted shoppers as they entered stores? Or the PG-13 shopping bags with couples wrapped up in each others' arms, mid-kiss?

But that was in the past.

Looking at Abercrombie & Fitch's latest campaign, the sex is noticeably absent. Amid declining sales, the teen brand has been slowly but surely chipping away at its raunchy reputation to become more palatable to the modern consumer.

Abercrombie's efforts to rebrand have been clear. The brand has promised fewer logos, hopped on some trends, and toned down its "hot salesclerk" policy. The shirtless models are no longer greeting tourists at the New York City flagship store.

Abercrombie & Fitch isn't the only retailer that has ditched its trademark sexual marketing.

American Apparel, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy this fall, was known for its extremely sexual marketing campaigns almost as much as it was known for its notorious ex-CEO, Dov Charney. This summer, the brand's ad campaigns were noticeably less racy.

The retailer's Instagram feed proves how much less carnal the brand's imagery has become. Models are no longer nearly naked and sprawled out in suggestive positions; instead, they are covered up. Necklines are higher, and hem lines are lower.

These major changes indicate massive changes in consumers' mentalities.

See photos of Abercrombie's old advertisements:

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Abercrombie & Fitch is changing its advertising
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Does sex still sell? Abercrombie & Fitch and other sexy brands tone it down
FILE - In this file photo made Wednesday, Nov. 11, 2009, a shopper holds a shopping bag in front of an Abercrombie & Fitch store in Portland, Ore. Abercrombie & Fitch narrowed its loss in the first quarter Tuesday, May 18, 2010, as sales improved in the U.S. and overseas, but the retailer lost more money than analysts expected as it made less money on some sales.(AP Photo/Rick Bowmer, file)
SAN FRANCISCO, CA - AUGUST 26: Pedestrians walk by an Abercrombie & Fitch store on August 26, 2015 in San Francisco, California. Abercrombie & Fitch reported better-than-expected second quarter revenue falling to $817.8 million from $890.6 million one year ago. Analysts had predicted $811 million in revenue. (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
Holiday shoppers walk past a billboard for an Abercrombie & Fitch store, Wednesday, Dec. 9, 2009 in New York. Investors are hopeful that a report Friday on retail sales will show consumers are opening up their wallets this holiday season. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)
Shoppers carry an American Eagle Outfitters Inc. bag and Abercrombie & Fitch Co. bags in San Francisco, California, U.S., on Thursday, Aug. 16, 2012. American Eagle Outfitters Inc. is expected to release earnings data on August 22. Photographer: David Paul Morris/Bloomberg via Getty Images
SAN FRANCISCO, CA - AUGUST 26: Pedestrians walk by an Abercrombie & Fitch store on August 26, 2015 in San Francisco, California. Abercrombie & Fitch reported better-than-expected second quarter revenue falling to $817.8 million from $890.6 million one year ago. Analysts had predicted $811 million in revenue. (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
** FILE ** In a file photo a shopper carries an Abercrombie & Fitch shopping bag after purchasing items in one of the company's New York stores Tuesday, Aug. 16, 2005. The Commerce Department reported Friday Oct. 28, 2005, that economic activity expanded at an energetic 3.8 percent annual rate in the third quarter, providing vivid evidence of the economy's stamina. Growth in the third quarter was broad-based, reflecting brisk spending by consumers, businesses and government. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)
Shoppers walk past an Abercrombie & Fitch Co. store at the Roosevelt Field Mall in Garden City, New York, U.S., on Saturday, Nov. 14, 2015. The Bloomberg Consumer Comfort Index, a survey which measures attitudes about the economy, is scheduled to be released on November 19. Photographer: John Taggart/Bloomberg via Getty Images
A pedestrian walks by the Abercrombie & Fitch store Monday, Nov. 14, 2005 at Easton Town Center in Columbus, Ohio. (AP Photo/Kiichiro Sato)
MUNICH, GERMANY - OCTOBER 25: Male models pose outside the Abercrombie & Fitch flagship clothing store before the opening of Abercrombie & Fitch Munich flagship store on October 25, 2012 in Munich, Germany. (Photo by Hannes Magerstaedt/Getty Images)
Bare-chested models pose in front of the Abercrombie & Fitch shop on the Champs Elysees in Paris Thursday May 12, 2011, as of the promotion of the opening of the new U.S. brand shop in Paris.(AP Photo/Remy de la Mauviniere)
Shoppers walk past a billboard for a soon-to-be opened Abercrombie and Fitch store outside a shopping mall on Thursday Aug. 18, 2011 in Singapore. The city-state's Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong warned Singaporeans in his recent national day address that economic problems in the U.S. and Europe pose a serious risk to world growth which could lead to another recession. (AP Photo/Wong Maye-E)
A window at the Abercrombie & Fitch flagship store on New York's Fifth Ave. is shown Tuesday, Jan. 24, 2006. The teen retailer, based in New Albany, Ohio, reported Jan. 5, 2006 a 37 percent increase in sales for 2005. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)
Pedestrians walk pass a giant display ad for the retailer, Abercrombie & Fitch, on Saturday, May 14, 2005 on New York's Fifth Avenue. Abercrombie & Fitch is expected to release earnings after the market close on Tuesday, May 17, 2005. (AP Photo/Kiichiro Sato)
A woman walks past the Abercrombie & Fitch storefront at Tower City Center in downtown Cleveland Thursday, May 5, 2005. Consumers showed more signs of caution during April, giving the nation's retailers mixed sales results for the month. Abercrombie & Fitch Co. had a 16 percent gain in same-store sales (AP Photo/Mark Duncan)
**FILE** In this Feb. 13, 2006, file photo, shoppers walk past the entrance of the Abercrombie & Fitch clothing store in Des Peres, Mo. On Friday, the Commerce Department reported that retail sales dipped 0.1 percent after edging up by the same amount in May. (AP Photo/James A. Finley)
FILE - In this May 25, 2011 file photo, an Abercrombie & Fitch employee, center, poses for photos with two customers at the entrance to the company's Fifth Avenue store, in New York. Abercrombie & Fitch Co. said Wednesday, Aug. 17, 2011, its second-quarter net income rose 64 percent, boosted by higher demand for its preppy fashions in the U.S. and Europe.(AP Photo/Mark Lennihan, File)
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"The most important thing they are doing is signaling a major shift," Ruth Bernstein, Founder and Chief Strategic Officer of image-making agency YARD, explained to Business Insider. "Whether or not these campaigns can save the brands we'll see, but they are doing some heavy lifting in terms of repositioning themselves to the consumer, and that's definitely a step in the right direction for them. [Abercrombie & Fitch's] new campaign not only tames them, it raises their fashion credentials by looking much more editorial and current."

"Both [Abercrombie & Fitch and American Apparel's older] campaigns [were] overtly sexual without any substance behind them," Bernstein, who has created brand strategies and campaigns for high-profile companies like John Varvatos and Timberland, explained. "Whilst they may have been iconic, they both also air on the side of exploitative. Consumers are looking for a lot more from a brand now."

Bernstein points to millennials and the crucial demographic — Generation Z — as those who are responsible for igniting this change. "They don't respond to traditional notions of beauty or even sexuality," she said. "They respond to real social change and self direction. There is a reason that the Aerie campaigns that are not retouched are doing well. They are making a statement, changing an industry, and are still aspirational."

Additionally, consumers are flooded with sexual imagery, so sexual imagery that's vacuous and devoid of meaning no longer connects with consumers.

"Today, the world is so saturated with nudity and sex, people are looking for more than just shock and nudity because you can see those anywhere. The consumer is looking for sex plus," Bernstein explained.

Think about how Playboy decided to remove its famous nude photos, in part because circulation was slipping — which is likely because consumers had such easy access to sexual imagery.

"That battle has been fought and won ... you're now one click away from every sex act imaginable for free," Playboy CEO Scott Flanders told the New York Times.

Advertising is supposed to provoke a visceral response, and if people see sexual imagery everyday, the advertisement is no longer able to do its job, right?

Partially. If a brand gets sexy imagery right, Bernstein believes it will continue to sell. "What is truly sexy is the key, and shifts along with the culture and every generation. When you get it right, it still absolutely works and sells. The trick is to understanding that sexy has evolved."

Bernstein described this new sex that has replaced the old school sex as "a modern take on the same dynamics, that infuses meaning, that leaves room for the imagination, that allows for a greater range of identity and orientation. An approach that brings in some brains to the brawn."

"It's all been a part of a generational shift towards greater sense of empowerment and individuality," she explained. "Sex is still a very strong motivator in a lot of categories, it's just a matter of approach."

In other words, the shirtless in-store model approach is worn out and tired.

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