Having made Olympic history, Beijing faces challenges

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Beijing Awarded 2022 Winter Olympics


BEIJING (AP) -- Having made history as the first city to win hosting rights for both the Summer and Winter Olympics, Beijing now faces a slew of challenges, from ensuring adequate snow in a bone-dry region to ramping up support for winter sports in a nation where few people ski or skate.

Human rights criticisms and demands to loosen restrictions on the Internet and reporters will also test the bounds of tolerance for the authoritarian communist state.

Celebrations of Friday's win were muted in Beijing - a stark contrast to the dancing-in-the-streets euphoria the city witnessed in 2001, when it won the 2008 Summer Games. The Winter Olympics are a much smaller and less popular event, but China has a special challenge in that few of its citizens know or care about winter sports, despite a recent increase of interest in skiing, skating and ice hockey among the rising middle class.

Elsewhere, fireworks were lit in the mountain town of Chongli, future host of Nordic skiing and other events, which anticipates an economic boom from the games.

"We're going to see big changes here. Our guests yesterday were really happy about winning the bid and many are interested in investing and buying houses in Chongli," said a desk manager at a local hotel, the No. 66 Holiday Inn, who gave only her surname, Liu.

Beijing says holding the games will unlock a potential winter sports market of 300 million people in the country's north, although only a fraction would have the means to travel to increasingly pricey Chongli to ski. As a start, the government last month announced a $30 million program to promote winter sports such as luge, bobsledding and Nordic combined.

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Beijing 2022 Olympic Bid
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Having made Olympic history, Beijing faces challenges
Members of the delegation from Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics candidate city react after the city was elected to host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games at IOC meeting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Friday, July 31, 2015. (AP Photo/Vincent Thian, Pool)
International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Thomas Bach shows the card with the name Beijing as the winning name of the 2022 Winter Olympic bid city, during the 128th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session in Kuala Lumpur on July 31, 2015. AFP PHOTO / MANAN VATSYAYANA (Photo credit should read MANAN VATSYAYANA/AFP/Getty Images)
Participants celebrate following the announcement that Beijing will host the 2022 Winter Olympics at a gathering outside of the Beijing Olympic Stadium, also known as the Birds Nest, in Beijing, Friday, July 31, 2015. Beijing was selected Friday to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, becoming the first city awarded both the winter and summer games. The sign reads "Warm celebration of the successful Winter Olympics bid". (AP Photo/Mark Schiefelbein)
Volunteers react in front of journalists a few minutes before the announcement by the International Olympic Committee voting for Beijing to host the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing on July 31, 2015. AFP PHOTO / FRED DUFOUR (Photo credit should read FRED DUFOUR/AFP/Getty Images)
People react as they watch live coverage on a large TV screen of the announcement of Beijing as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games, in Beijing on July 31, 2015. AFP PHOTO / GREG BAKER (Photo credit should read GREG BAKER/AFP/Getty Images)
Members of the Chinese delegation clap hands during the Beijing's bid presentation for the host city for the 2022 Winter Games, at the 128th International Olympic Committee session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Friday, July 31, 2015. (AP Photo/Vincent Thian, Pool)
China's Vice Premier Liu Yandong, second left, is greeted by Wang Anshun, left, Beijing mayor and president of the Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games Bid, as other members of the delegation from Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics candidate city react after Beijing was elected to host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games at IOC meeting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Friday, July 31, 2015. (AP Photo/Vincent Thian, Pool)
President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Thomas Bach, center, greets retired Chinese professional basketball player Yao Ming, right, during the Beijing's bid presentation for the host city for the 2022 Winter Games, at the 128th International Olympic Committee session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Friday, July, 31, 2015. (AP Photo/Joshua Paul)
BEIJING, CHINA - JULY 31: People celebrate at Olympic Plaza as Beijing wins the bidding of 2022 Olympic Winter Games on July 31, 2015 in Beijing, China. (Photo by Xiaolu Chu/Getty Images)
Chinese policewomen wave a Chinese national flag to celebrate as Beijing is announced as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics at the ski resort region of Chongli where the Nordic skiing, ski jumping, and other outdoor Olympic events will be held in northern China's Hebei province Friday, July 31, 2015. Beijing was selected Friday to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, becoming the first city awarded both the winter and summer games. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan)
A mother celebrates with her daughter after watching the announcement of Beijing as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games in Beijing on July 31, 2015. AFP PHOTO (Photo credit should read GREG BAKER/AFP/Getty Images)
KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA - JULY 31: Vice president of the Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games Bid Committee Zhang Haidi, Mayor of Beijing Wang Anshun, China's Vice Premier Liu Yandong, President of the Chinese Olympic Committee Liu Peng and members of the of the Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games Bid Committee celebrate after Beijing, China was announced as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics during the Announcement Ceremony at the 128th IOC Session at the Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre on July 31, 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (Photo by Olivia Harris-Pool/Getty Images)
Volunteers parade in front of journalists a few minutes before the announcement by the International Olympic Committee voting for Beijing to host the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing on July 31, 2015. AFP PHOTO / FRED DUFOUR (Photo credit should read FRED DUFOUR/AFP/Getty Images)
Children play in front of the Bird's Nest stadium in Beijing on July 30, 2015, on the eve of voting by the International Olympic Committee on the city's bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing Olympic officials Oshrugged off questions July 27 over snow levels and spread-out venues in their 2022 Winter Games bid as they launched their final pitch in Malaysia ahead of an IOC vote this week. AFP PHOTO / FRED DUFOUR (Photo credit should read FRED DUFOUR/AFP/Getty Images)
A participant holds Chinese and Beijing 2022 flags before the announcement that Beijing will host the 2022 Winter Olympics at a gathering outside the Beijing Olympic Stadium, also known as the Birds Nest, in Beijing, Friday, July 31, 2015. Beijing was selected Friday to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, becoming the first city awarded both the winter and summer games. (AP Photo/Mark Schiefelbein)
Chinese people gather to celebrate as Beijing is announced as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games, in Zhangjiakou, in northern China's Hebei province on July 31, 2015. Zhangjiakou will co-host the Games with neighboring Beijing. CHINA OUT AFP PHOTO (Photo credit should read STR/AFP/Getty Images)
Children play in front of the Bird's Nest stadium in Beijing on July 30, 2015, on the eve of voting by the International Olympic Committee on the city's bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing Olympic officials Oshrugged off questions July 27 over snow levels and spread-out venues in their 2022 Winter Games bid as they launched their final pitch in Malaysia ahead of an IOC vote this week. AFP PHOTO / FRED DUFOUR (Photo credit should read FRED DUFOUR/AFP/Getty Images)
A woman poses in front of the Bird's Nest stadium in Beijing on July 30, 2015, on the eve of voting by the International Olympic Committee on the city's bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing Olympic officials Oshrugged off questions July 27 over snow levels and spread-out venues in their 2022 Winter Games bid as they launched their final pitch in Malaysia ahead of an IOC vote this week. AFP PHOTO / FRED DUFOUR (Photo credit should read FRED DUFOUR/AFP/Getty Images)
Children play in front of the Bird's Nest stadium in Beijing on July 30, 2015, on the eve of voting by the International Olympic Committee on the city's bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing Olympic officials Oshrugged off questions July 27 over snow levels and spread-out venues in their 2022 Winter Games bid as they launched their final pitch in Malaysia ahead of an IOC vote this week. AFP PHOTO / FRED DUFOUR (Photo credit should read FRED DUFOUR/AFP/Getty Images)
Yao Ming, retired Chinese professional basketball player smiles during a press conference for Beijing 2022 Olympic bid in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Wednesday, July 29, 2015. Malaysia is hosting the 128th International Olympic Committee executive board meeting where the vote for the host cities of the 2022 Olympic Winter Games and for the 2020 Youth Olympic Winter Games will take place. (AP Photo/Vincent Thian)
Wang Hui, Spokeswomen of Beijing bid committee, answers a question during a press conference at a hotel in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Monday, July, 27, 2015. Malaysia is hosting the 128th International Olympic Committee executive board meeting where the vote for the host cities of the 2022 Olympic Winter Games and for the 2020 Youth Olympic Winter Games will take place. (AP Photo/Vincent Thian)
A coach guides a young Chinese girl during a freestyle skating practice session on an ice rink at a shopping mall in Beijing Sunday, July 26, 2015. China’s capital city Beijing, which hosted the 2008 Olympics, is seeking to become the first city to stage both summer and winter games. The International Olympic Committee will vote on Friday, July 31 on the host city for the 2022 Winter Games, choosing between Beijing and Almaty, Kazakhstan. The voting will take place at the IOC session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)
Hong Kong movie star Jackie Chan, sixth from left, stands with Chinese officials and music composers at a launch for Olympic Music Week on stage during the 2022 Beijing's Winter Olympics bid campaign held at a hotel in Beijing, China, Wednesday, May 27, 2015. Jackie Chan is throwing his support behind Beijing’s bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, even recording a song "Wake Up Winter" promoting the campaign. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)
In this photo taken Sunday, May 31, 2015, Chinese security personnel rest near the Olympic rings near the Bird's Nest National Stadium in Beijing. Beijing has marketed its bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics as the reliable choice, despite concerns about a lack of natural snow, notoriously bad air pollution and warnings about the government’s treatment of political dissidents and minority groups. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan)
A security guard checks his cellphone in front of the Beijing National Stadium, also known as the Birds Nest, as a promotional video for the proposed Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics plays on the side of the stadium in Beijing, Saturday, March 28, 2015. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) concluded a 5-day visit on Saturday to inspect Beijing's bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics. (AP Photo/Mark Schiefelbein)
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In Chongli, venue construction will require the relocation of around 1,800 residents of outlying villages, with the government offering a selection of compensation measures.

However, the overriding concern of the IOC and sports federations has been the area's ability to produce enough artificial snow to augment the meager natural snowfall. That's all the more acute because of water stresses in the region that already diverts significant resources from agriculture to slake the thirst of Beijing's 21 million residents.

In a 2014 report, the United Nations said water resources per person in northern China amount to only 200 cubic meters per year, "only one fifth of what is conceived as a safe standard." The IOC itself, in its evaluation report, said it felt Beijing had underestimated both the amount of water needed and its ability to recover runoff from the slopes.

Despite that, Beijing's bid was based on assurances it can generate enough snow without causing disruptions to the lives of ordinary citizens. Whatever the case, strong government backing should eliminate any obstacles.

Back in Beijing, organizers say holding the games will add momentum to plans to clean up the capital's notorious air pollution by removing highly polluting vehicles from the streets, closing aged factories and reducing the amount of coal burnt by 75 percent.

That's a potent challenge, given the city's continuing expansion, although the government has become increasingly responsive to the threats pollution poses to health, development and quality of life.

With many venues left over from the 2008 games and a cadre of experienced managers in place, staging the actual games shouldn't require much additional effort.

Yet, despite all of Beijing's organizational strengths and commercial acumen, it has yet to devise a formula for handling the sensitive questions of human rights and the media that the IOC says are integral to a successful games.

Critics say China is in the throes of the biggest crackdown on civil society advocates in years, with more than 250 lawyers representing clients in civil rights cases rounded up and detained.

Longstanding blocks on foreign websites, including Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, remain in place, although bid organizers offered vague pledges that they would be lifted during the games.

While the IOC says it won assurances over non-discrimination, Internet access, media freedom, labor rights and the right to demonstrate during the games, President Thomas Bach conceded its powers were limited.

The IOC "is not a world government," he said.

Shortly after Friday's announcement, groups supporting activists for minority, human and civil rights expressed dismay over the IOC's decision, saying it merely rewarded Beijing's bad behavior.

"This decision will further harm China's most vulnerable groups and also undermine what remains of the IOC's credibility," the group Human Rights in China said in a statement.

Bob Dietz, Asia program coordinator for the Committee to Protect Journalists, was equally dubious about the assurances on offer.

"China's record on press freedom and human rights is not one that deserves to be rewarded. The success of the 2022 Winter Olympics will depend not just on venues and ratings but also on respect for human dignity as enshrined in the Olympic Charter."

China's approach post-2008 doesn't offer much cause for optimism. After lifting a demand that permission be obtained to report outside Beijing in 2007, the government ratcheted up surveillance of foreign media in 2011 amid fears the Arab Spring pro-democracy sentiments would spread to China.

Reporters traveling independently to Chongli ahead of Friday's announcement were trailed by unknown individuals in cars with blacked-out windows, a common practice among local governments suspicious of outside scrutiny.

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