Reuters -- The U.S. military mistakenly sent live anthrax bacteria to laboratories in nine U.S. states and a U.S. air base in South Korea, after apparently failing to properly inactivate the bacteria last year, U.S. officials said on Wednesday.
The Pentagon said there was no known suspected infection or risk to the public. But four U.S. civilians have been started on preventive measures called post-exposure prophylaxis, which usually includes the anthrax vaccine, antibiotics or both.
Twenty-two personnel at the base in South Korea were also given precautionary medical measures although none have shown sign of exposure, the U.S. military said.
US military mistakenly ships live anthrax to labs in 9 states
ARLINGTON, VA - JUNE 03: Director of Medical Programs for DoD Chemical and Biological Defense Cdr. Franca Jones demonstrates the protocol for shipping anthrax sample during a news briefing on the DoD Lab Review and Anthrax shipment investigation June 3, 2015 at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The Pentagon announced today the Defense Department may have accidentally shipped live anthrax samples out to at least 51 labs in 17 states, the District of Columbia and three foreign countries. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)
ARLINGTON, VA - JUNE 03: Director of Medical Programs for DoD Chemical and Biological Defense Cdr. Franca Jones demonstrates the protocol for shipping anthrax sample as Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Frank Kendall looks on during a news briefing on the DoD Lab Review and Anthrax shipment investigation June 3, 2015 at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The Pentagon announced today the Defense Department may have accidentally shipped live anthrax samples out to at least 51 labs in 17 states, the District of Columbia and three foreign countries. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)
In this May 11, 2003, file photo, Microbiologist Ruth Bryan works with BG nerve agent simulant in Class III Glove Box in the Life Sciences Test Facility at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. The specialized airtight enclosure is also used for hands-on work with anthrax and other deadly agents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said it is investigating what the Pentagon called an inadvertent shipment of live anthrax spores to government and commercial laboratories in as many as nine states, as well as one overseas, that expected to receive dead spores. (AP Photo/Douglas C. Pizac, File)
This image depicted numbers of Bacillus anthracis bacterial colonies, which had been allowed to grow on sheep's blood agar, SBA, for a 24 hour period. Note the classical appearance exhibited in the colonial morphology including a ground-glass, non-pigment. (Photo via Getty)
Chemistry student Jorge Rodriguez Martinez holds a sample of billions of Anthrax bacteria at the National School of Biological Sciences in Mexico City, Wednesday, Oct. 17, 2001. Two germ banks tucked away in Mexico City stock dozens of petri dishes filled with anthrax, the bacteria that have sparked a worldwide panic. But there are no armed guards, no security cameras and no health officials tottering about in germ-proof space suits. In fact, these labs sell, swap or even give away the potentially deadly microbe to those with scientific credentials. (AP Photo/Victor R. Caivano)
Dr. Mohammed Ali, left, and Dr. Abdul Wakil stands in front of empty bottles of anthrax vaccine in a Ministry of Agriculture laboratory in Kabul, Afghanistan, Tuesday, Nov. 20, 2001. The laboratory, which was under Taliban control for five years, produced anthrax vaccine for animals. The now defeated Taliban regime has long denied being involved in chemical or biological weapons research, but it seems to have taken an interest in the work being done at the lab, according to scientists there, and it wasrepeatedly hit by U.S. bombers. (AP Photo/Marco Di Lauro)
Dr. Abdul Wakil holds a bottle of solution used to make anthrax vaccine for animals in a Ministry of Agriculture laboratory in Kabul, Afghanistan on Tuesday, Nov. 20, 2001. The laboratory, which was under Taliban control for five years, produced anthrax vaccine for animals. The now defeated Taliban regime has long denied being involved in chemical or biological weapons research, but it seems to have taken an interest in the work being done at the lab, according to scientists there, and it was repeatedly hit by U.S. bombers. (AP Photo/Marco Di Lauro)
SLUG:NA/ANTHRAX DATE:10/16/08 QUANTICO, VA CREDIT: DOMINIC BRACCO II From left, forensic examiner Jason Bannan Ph.D., supervisory special agent Scott Decker, and supervisory special agent Matthew Feinberg, pose for a portrait on Oct. 16, 2008 at a lab in Quantico, VA. The three helped solve the anthrax investigation. (Photo by Dominic Bracco Ii/The Washington Post/Getty Images)
LOS ANGELES - May 6: Amir Ettehadieh, Director of Research and Development at Universal Detection Technology, walks past the prototype anthrax-detection device unveiled May 6, 2004 in Los Angeles, California. Universal Detection Technology's Anthrax Smoke Detector monitors the overall level of spores in the air. A sudden spike in the level would indicate a release of spores such as would occur during in a biological terror attack. Instant anthrax exposure detection could save lives by giving patients time to take Cipro before the end of the four-day incubation period. (Photo by David McNew/Getty Images)
The sequence of an anthrax DNA fragment is analyzed under ultraviolet light in this undated handout photo from the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, N.M. Once the sequence has been determined by electrophoresis or ultra-fast flow cytometry, it can be compared to the anthrax sequence database at the lab to determine its age and geographic origin. (AP Photo/Los Alamos National Laboratory)
A microbiologist checks a petri dish for a bacteria culture in the micro biological laboratory of the regional authorities for food security and consumer protection in the German state Thuringia in Erfurt, eastern Germany, on Saturday, Nov. 3, 2001. Final tests on powder found in a letter that touched off an anthrax scare in Germany found no trace of a deadly bacterium, speakers of the government lab Robert Koch Institute said Saturday, Nov. 3, 2001. The letter was received by a person in the town of Rudolstadt in Thuringia. (AP Photo/Jens Meyer)
Microbiologist Johannetsy Avillan streaks a sample of a bacterium to a blood plate in an anaerobe lab within the Infectious Disease Laboratory at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Monday, Nov. 25, 2013, in Atlanta. (AP Photo/David Goldman)
House Oversight and Investigations subcommittee Chairman Rep. Tim Murphy (D-PA), holds up a bag as she speaks on Capitol Hill in Washington, Wednesday, July 16, 2014, during a hearing on the incident last month at a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lab that handles bioterrorism agents. (AP Photo/Lauren Victoria Burke)
Microbiologist Tatiana Travis works with tubes of bacteria samples in an antimicrobial resistance and characterization lab within the Infectious Disease Laboratory at the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Monday, Nov. 25, 2013, in Atlanta. (AP Photo/David Goldman)
An employee of ATEV Protein Processing Corp. wearing protective gear works at a cattle farm near Tiszafured, 147 kms east of Budapest, Hungary, Friday, July 4, 2014, after persons were hospitalized due to possible anthrax infection. The patients are linked to an illegal slaughter of two cows at the farm where an on-the-spot inspection revealed the bacterium of anthrax. (AP Photo/MTI, Zsolt Czegledi)
FILE - In this July 16, 2014 file photo a chart is on display on Capitol Hill in Washington during the House Oversight and Investigations subcommittee hearing about an incident at a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lab that handles bioterrorism agents. Michael Farrell head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lab that potentially exposed workers to live anthrax, resigned an agency spokesman said Wednesday, July 23, 2014. (AP Photo/Lauren Victoria Burke, File)
FILE - This Jan. 27, 2010, file photo shows the main gate at Dugway Proving Ground military base, about 85 miles southwest Salt Lake City. U.S. officials say systemic problems caused an Army facility to accidentally send live anthrax to other labs for more than a decade. At a press briefing Thursday, July 23, 2015 Pentagon officials said half the lots of anthrax produced at the Army's Dugway Proving Ground in Utah contained live anthrax after attempts to kill the bacteria failed. (AP Photo/Jim Urquhart, File)
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The four in the United States face "minimal" risk, said Jason McDonald, a spokesman for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which has begun an investigation of the incident. They had been "doing procedures that sent the agent into the air," he said.
When anthrax becomes airborne, it can cause a deadly illness called inhalation anthrax. That occurred in 2001, when anthrax sent through the U.S. mail to government and media targets killed five people.
The anthrax, which was initially sent from a Utah military lab, was meant to be shipped in an inactive state as part of efforts to develop a field-based test to identify biological threats, the Pentagon said.
"Out of an abundance of caution, (the Defense Department) has stopped the shipment of this material from its labs pending completion of the investigation," said Pentagon spokesman Colonel Steve Warren.
The CDC said it has launched an investigation of the mishap.
All samples involved in the investigation will be securely transferred to the CDC or affiliated labs for further testing, spokeswoman Kathy Harden said, adding that CDC has sent officials to the labs "to conduct on-site investigations."
The mishap comes 11 months after the CDC, one of the government's top civilian labs, similarly mishandled anthrax.
Researchers at a lab designed to handle extremely dangerous pathogens sent what they believed were killed samples of anthrax to another CDC lab, one with fewer safeguards and therefore not authorized to work with live anthrax.
Scores of CDC employees could have been exposed to the live anthrax, but none became ill.
That incident and a similar one last spring, in which CDC scientists shipped what they thought was a benign form of bird flu but which was actually a highly virulent strain, led U.S. lawmakers to fault a "dangerous pattern" of safety lapses at government labs.
ANTHRAX SENT TO GOVERNMENT & PRIVATE FACILITIES
In the latest case, the Army's Dugway Proving Ground in Utah reported in March 2014 that gamma irradiation had inactivated the anthrax stock in question, and along with another Army facility, began shipments that continued through April 2015, a U.S. official said.
The official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the suspected live anthrax samples were sent to U.S. federal, private and academic facilities.
The anthrax was sent to laboratories in Maryland, Texas, Wisconsin, Delaware, New Jersey, Tennessee, New York, California and Virginia, officials said.
The Maryland laboratory alerted the CDC late on Friday that it had a live sample and by midday on Saturday, the laboratories were notified, the U.S. official said.
The four civilians receiving post-exposure prophylaxis are in Delaware, Texas and Wisconsin. "Workers who were not in the same area at the same time are not at risk," the CDC's McDonald said.
The sample sent to South Korea was subsequently destroyed, the Pentagon and the U.S. military there said.
A U.S. emergency team responded to destroy the sample on Wednesday at the U.S. base after what was expected to be an inactive training sample was thought to be live bacteria, the U.S. military in South Korea said.
Precautionary medical measures were given to 22 personnel who may have been exposed during the training at the base about 35 km (20 miles) south of Seoul and none of them have shown any sign of exposure, it said.
Experts in biosafety were astonished by the lapse.
"These events shouldn't happen," said Stephen Morse of Columbia University, a former program manager for biodefense at the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Scientists working with the most dangerous pathogens follow a "two-person rule," never handling samples alone. The second pair of eyes is meant to insure scientists take proper precautions during experiments.
Two people should also vet shipments of supposedly killed anthrax. "We can put greater safeguards in place," Morse said.