Ebola vaccines testing starts in Liberia

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Liberia Ebola - vaccine - last updated 7/1/2015
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Ebola vaccines testing starts in Liberia
Health workers leave after they took a blood specimen from a child to test for the Ebola virus in a area were a 17-year old boy died from the virus on the outskirts of Monrovia, Liberia, Tuesday, June 30, 2015. Liberian authorities on Tuesday quarantined an area where the corpse was found, sparking fears this West African country could face another outbreak of the disease nearly two months after being declared Ebola-free. (AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
Health workers wash their hands after taking a blood specimen from a child to test for the Ebola virus in an area where a 17-year old boy died from the virus on the outskirts of Monrovia, Liberia, Tuesday, June 30, 2015. Liberian authorities on Tuesday quarantined the area where the corpse of the boy was found, sparking fears this West African country could face another outbreak of the disease nearly two months after being declared Ebola-free. (AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
Health workers take a blood specimen from a child to test for the Ebola virus in a area were a 17-year old boy died from the virus on the outskirts of Monrovia, Liberia, Tuesday, June 30, 2015. Liberian authorities on Tuesday quarantined an area where the corpse of the boy was found, sparking fears this West African country could face another outbreak of the disease nearly two months after being declared Ebola-free. (AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
A woman holds a placard as she and others celebrate Liberia being an Ebola free nation in Monrovia, Liberia, Monday, May 11, 2015. Liberians are gathering in the streets of the capital to celebrate the end of the Ebola epidemic in this West African country. Monday's festivities come after the World Health Organization declared over the weekend that Liberia was finally Ebola-free. (AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
People display a representation of the Liberian flag as they celebrate Liberia being an Ebola free nation in Monrovia, Liberia, Monday, May 11, 2015. Liberians are gathering in the streets of the capital to celebrate the end of the Ebola epidemic in this West African country. Monday's festivities come after the World Health Organization declared over the weekend that Liberia was finally Ebola-free. (AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
A woman smiles as she celebrates Liberia being an Ebola-free nation in Monrovia, Liberia, Saturday, May 9, 2015. Liberia is now free of Ebola after going 42 days — twice the maximum incubation period for the deadly disease — without any new cases, the World Health Organization announced on Saturday.(AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
In this photo taken on Friday, May 8, 2015, Mercy Kennedy, left, sits with her caregiver Martu Weefor, right, after school at her home in Monrovia, Liberia. On the day Mercy Kennedy lost her mother to Ebola, it was hard to imagine a time Liberia would be free of one of the world’s deadliest viruses. It had swept through the 9-year-old’s neighborhood, killing people house by house. Now seven months later, Liberia on Saturday officially marked the end of the epidemic that claimed more than 4,700 lives here, and Mercy is thriving in the care of a family friend not far from where she used to live. (AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A nurse takes a blood sample from Emmanuel Lansana, 43, the first person to take part in the Ebola vaccine study being conducted at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Lansana, a physician's assistant, was the first of 12 people given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A nurse speaks with a volunteer for the Ebola vaccine trials, which were launched at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Twelve people were given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
People walk near a sign calling for volunteers for an Ebola vaccine study at Redemption Hospital in New Kru Town, a suburb of Monrovia, on February 2, 2015. The first large-scale trials of two Ebola vaccines were due to begin in Liberia on February 2, the partnership conducting the research said. The vaccines contain harmless fragments of the virus that trigger an immune response, according to the Partnership for Research on Ebola Vaccines in Liberia (PREVAIL), a collaboration between the United States and Liberia. AFP PHOTO / ZOOM DOSSO (Photo credit should read ZOOM DOSSO/AFP/Getty Images)
A woman, right, is injected by a health care worker, left, as she takes part in a Ebola virus vaccine trial at one of the largest hospital's Redemption hospital in Monrovia, Liberia, Monday, Feb. 2, 2015. A large-scale human trial of two potential Ebola vaccines got under way in Liberia's capital Monday, part of a global effort to prevent a repeat of the epidemic that has now claimed nearly 9,000 lives in West Africa. (AP Photo/ Abbas Dulleh)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: Mothers bring their sick children for treatment at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Life is slowly returning to normal for many Liberians, and most hospitals and clinics have re-opened as the Ebola epidemic wanes. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: People await treatment in the outpatient lounge of Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Most hospitals and clinics have re-opened, as the Ebola epidemic wanes. The virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: People await outpatient treatment at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Most hospitals and clinics have re-opened, as the Ebola epidemic wanes. The virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: Health workers in protective clothing await patients in the outpatient lounge of Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Most hospitals and clinics have re-opened, as the Ebola epidemic wanes. The virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A placard with information on identifying Ebola symptoms lies in the outpatient waiting room of Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Most hospitals and clinics have re-opened, as the Ebola epidemic wanes. The virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A doctor displays Ebola vaccines to be given in the vaccine trials which were launched at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Twelve people given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: Emmanuel Lansana, 43, takes part in a briefing before becoming the first person to be injected in the Ebola vaccine trials, which were launched at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Lansana, a physician's assistant, was the first of 12 people given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: Health workers in protective clothing speak with new arrivals in the outpatient waiting room of Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Most hospitals and clinics have re-opened, as the Ebola epidemic wanes. The virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: Dr. Mike Montello, research director at the U.S. National Institutes of Health, prepares the first batch of Ebola vaccines to be given in the Ebola vaccine trials, which were launched at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Twelve people were given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A nurse takes a blood sample from Emmanuel Lansana, 43, the first person to take part in the Ebola vaccine study being conducted at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Lansana, a physician's assistant, was the first of 12 people given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A nurse administers an injection to Emmanuel Lansana, 43, the first person to take part in the Ebola vaccine trials being conducted at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Lansana was the first of 12 people given injections, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: Emmanuel Lansana, 43, takes part in a briefing before becoming the first person to be injected in the Ebola vaccine trials, which were launched at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Lansana, a physician's assistant, was the first of 12 people given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A Liberian pharmacist prepares an Ebola vaccine to be given in the vaccine trials, which were launched at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Twelve people were given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
MONROVIA, LIBERIA - FEBRUARY 02: A nurse speaks with a volunteer for the Ebola vaccine trials, which were launched at Redemption Hospital, formerly an Ebola holding center, on February 2, 2015 in Monrovia, Liberia. Twelve people were given injections on the first day, out of a planned 27,000 people in the Monrovia area. The clinical research study is being conducted jointly by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Liberian Ministry of Health. The Ebola epidemic virus has killed at least 3,700 people in Liberia alone, the most of any country, and nearly 9,000 across in West Africa. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
In this photo taken Saturday, Nov. 8, 2014, health Care workers load the body of a dead woman suspected of dying from Ebola, onto the back of a truck in Jene-Wonde, Liberia. A schoolteacher brought his sick daughter from Liberia’s capital to this small town of 300 people. Soon he was dead along with his entire family, all buried in the forest nearby. (AP Photo/ Wade Williams)
In this photo taken Saturday, Nov. 8, 2014, a woman reacts, rear, as Health Care workers load the body of a family member suspected of dying from Ebola, onto the back of a truck in Jene-Wonde, Liberia. A schoolteacher brought his sick daughter from Liberia’s capital to this small town of 300 people. Soon he was dead along with his entire family, all buried in the forest nearby. (AP Photo/ Wade Williams)
Cpl. Zachary Wicker puts on germ-resistant gear in Fort Bliss, Texas, Tuesday, Oct. 14, 2014. About 500 Fort Bliss soldiers are training to use germ-proof suits and other equipment ahead of a deployment to West Africa where they'll participate in a U.S. military mission in areas affected by the Ebola outbreak. (AP Photo/Juan Carlos Llorca)
Social Commentator Alfred Sirleaf, gives comment on current events in Liberia including the deadly Ebola virus by speaking and writhing them down on a blackboard in Monrovia, Liberia, Thursday, July 31, 2014. The worst recorded Ebola outbreak in history surpassed 700 deaths in West Africa as the World Health Organization on Thursday announced dozens of new fatalities. (AP Photo/Jonathan Paye-Layleh)
An employee of the Monrovia City Corporation sprays disinfectant inside a government building in a bid to prevent the spread of the deadly Ebola virus, in the city of Monrovia, Liberia, Friday, Aug. 1, 2014. U.S. health officials warned Americans not to travel to the three West African countries hit by the worst recorded Ebola outbreak in history. The travel advisory issued Thursday applies to nonessential travel to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, where the deadly disease has killed more than 700 people this year. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
A man's temperature is measured before he is allowed into a business center, as fear of the deadly Ebola virus spreads through the city of Monrovia, Liberia, Saturday, Aug. 9, 2014. Over the decades, Ebola cases have been confirmed in 10 African countries, including Congo where the disease was first reported in 1976. But until this year, Ebola had never come to West Africa. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
The body of a man, background, suspected of dying from the Ebola virus lies on the ground, as health workers, right, spray themselves with disinfectant, in the capital city of Monrovia, Liberia, Tuesday, Aug. 12, 2014. The World Health Organization declared it’s ethical to use untested drugs and vaccines in the ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa although the tiny supply of one experimental drug handed out to three people has been depleted and it could be many months until more is available. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
A Liberian woman holds up a pamphlet with guidance on how to prevent the Ebola virus from spreading, in the city of Monrovia, Liberia, Thursday, Aug. 14, 2014. Liberian officials faced a difficult choice Thursday: deciding which handful of Ebola patients will receive an experimental drug that could prove life-saving, ineffective or even harmful. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Health workers are handed personal protective gear by a team leader, right, before collecting the bodies of the deceased from streets in Monrovia, Liberia, Saturday, Aug. 16, 2014. New figures released by the World Health Organization showed that Liberia has recorded more Ebola deaths — 413 — than any of the other affected countries. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Health workers wearing protective gear go to remove the body of a person who is believed to have died after contracting the Ebola virus in the city of Monrovia, Liberia, Saturday, Aug. 16, 2014. New figures released by the World Health Organization showed that Liberia has recorded more Ebola deaths — 413 — than any of the other affected countries. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Liberia security forces patrol in the West Point area, as the government clamps down on the movement of people to prevent the spread of the Ebola virus in Monrovia, Liberia, Wednesday, Aug. 20, 2014. Security forces deployed Wednesday to enforce a quarantine around a slum in the Liberian capital, stepping up the government’s fight to stop the spread of Ebola and unnerving residents. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Liberian soldiers keep order at a food distribution center, Thursday, Aug. 21, 2014, at the West Point area, one of the places where the Ebola virus has claimed lives, in Monrovia, Liberia. Calm returned Thursday to a slum in the Liberian capital that was sealed off in the government's attempt to halt the spread of Ebola, a day after clashes erupted between residents and security forces, but now the tens of thousands of residents worried about getting food. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Liberian health workers spray disinfectant outside a house before entering and removing the body of a man that they believe died from the Ebola virus in Monrovia, Liberia, Friday, Aug. 29, 2014. The Ebola outbreak in West Africa eventually could exceed 20,000 cases, more than six times as many as are now known, the World Health Organization said Thursday. A new plan released by the U.N. health agency to stop Ebola also assumes that the actual number of cases in many hard-hit areas may be two to four times higher than currently reported.(AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Thousands of people take to a street outside of West Point slum in Monrovia, Liberia, Saturday, Aug. 30, 2014. Crowds cheer and celebrate in the streets after Liberian authorities reopened a slum where tens of thousands of people were barricaded amid the country’s Ebola outbreak. The slum of 50,000 people in Liberia's capital was sealed off more than a week ago, sparking unrest and leaving many without access to food or safe water. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Doctor and nurse wearing protective gear take part in a drill with a dummy to demonstrate the procedures of transporting an Ebola patient,in Hong Kong Tuesday, Sept. 2, 2014. An Ebola outbreak in West Africa has killed more than 1,500 people in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. The university student is Senegal's first case of the dreaded disease. (AP Photo/Tyrone Siu, Pool)
Health workers load the body of an amputee suspected of dying from the Ebola virus during the rain on the back of a truck, in a busy street in Monrovia, Liberia, Tuesday, Sept. 2, 2014. Food in countries hit by Ebola is getting more expensive and will become scarcer because many farmers won't be able to access fields, a U.N. food agency warned Tuesday. An Ebola outbreak in West Africa has killed more than 1,500 people, and authorities have cordoned off entire towns in an effort to halt the virus' spread. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Health worker's spray each other with disinfectant chemicals as they worked with a suspected Ebola virus death in Monrovia, Liberia, Thursday, Sept. 4, 2014. As West Africa struggles to contain the biggest ever outbreak of Ebola, some experts say an unusual but simple treatment might help: the blood of survivors. The evidence is mixed for using infection-fighting antibodies from survivors' blood for Ebola, but without any licensed drugs or vaccines for the deadly disease, some say it's worth a shot. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
Health workers carry the body of a woman that they suspect died from the Ebola virus, in an area known as Clara Town in Monrovia, Liberia, Wednesday, Sept. 10, 2014. A surge in Ebola infections in Liberia is driving a spiraling outbreak in West Africa that is increasingly putting health workers at risk as they struggle to treat an overwhelming number of patients. A higher proportion of health workers has been infected in this outbreak than in any previous one. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
A Nigerian health official wearing a protective suit waits to screen passengers at the arrivals hall of Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos, Nigeria, Monday, Aug. 4, 2014. Nigerian authorities on Monday confirmed a second case of Ebola in Africa's most populous country, an alarming setback as officials across the region battle to stop the spread of a disease that has killed more than 700 people. (AP Photo/Sunday Alamba)
Bystanders react as they listen to a street preacher calling on people to raise their hands and "Wave Ebola Bye Bye" in Monrovia, Liberia, Saturday Sept. 27, 2014. Six months into the world’s worst-ever Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the region is desperate to receive enough aid to fight the disease. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)
Nowa Paye, 9, is taken to an ambulance after showing signs of the Ebola infection in the village of Freeman Reserve, about 30 miles north of Monrovia, Liberia,Tuesday Sept. 30, 2014. Three members of District 13 ambulance service traveled to the village to pickup six suspected Ebola sufferers that had been quarantined by villagers. Aid donations are still inadequate, as the international community tries to increase the ability to care for the spiraling number of people infected with the disease which has hit Liberia the hardest. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)
Army Stf. Sgt. Samuel Hines, left, helps Cpl. Zachary Wicker tape gloves to his uniform in Fort Bliss, Texas, Tuesday, Oct. 14, 2014. About 500 Fort Bliss soldiers are preparing for deployment to West Africa where they will provide support in a military effort to contain the Ebola outbreak. (AP Photo/Juan Carlos Llorca)
Army Stf. Sgt. Samuel Hines, left, helps Cpl. Zachary Wicker tape gloves to his uniform in Fort Bliss, Texas, Tuesday, Oct. 14, 2014. About 500 Fort Bliss soldiers are preparing for deployment to West Africa where they will provide support in a military effort to contain the Ebola outbreak. (AP Photo/Juan Carlos Llorca)
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MONROVIA, Liberia (AP) - Large-scale human testing of two potential Ebola vaccines got under way in Liberia's capital Monday, part of a global effort to prevent a repeat of the epidemic that has now claimed nearly 9,000 lives in West Africa.

Yet even as Liberians volunteered to take part, it remains unclear whether either vaccine ultimately will work, and if so how quickly they could be mass produced. There is currently no licensed treatment for Ebola, a ghastly virus that has killed at least 60 percent of even its hospitalized victims.

The studies in Liberia are taking place after smaller tests determined that the vaccines were safe for human use. By comparing them now with a dummy shot, scientists hope to learn whether they can prevent people from contracting the disease.

Despite the vaccine study's promise, authorities must combat fear and suspicion that people could become infected by taking part. Each vaccine uses a different virus to carry non-infectious Ebola genetic material into the body and spark an immune response.

On Sunday in one densely populated neighborhood of Monrovia, musicians sang songs explaining the purpose and intent of the trial in a bid to dispel fears.

B. Emmanuel Lansana, 43, a physician's assistant, was the first to receive doses on Monday. Two shots were administered at different points on his right arm. His wife had expressed apprehension about the vaccine trial, but Lansana said he still wanted to take part.

"From the counseling, all of the reservations I have were explained, my doubts were cleared," he said in a room where he was being observed for 30 minutes afterward.

Up to 600 volunteers are taking part in the first phase, and trial organizers have said eventually as many as 27,000 people could take part.

"We are targeting about 12 persons for today and hopefully the number will increase as we go along," Wissedi Sio Njoh, director of operation with the vaccination campaign, told The Associated Press.

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Ebola experimental vaccine + quarantines in the US - 10/26/2014
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Ebola vaccines testing starts in Liberia
A volunteer from the non-governemental organization gets an injection of an Ebola vaccine called ChAd3 as part of trials on November 4, 2014 at the CHUV hospital in Lausanne. Most of the 120 volunteers will receive the experimental vaccine made by Britain's GlaxoSmithKine, which is based on a genetically modified chimpanzee adenovirus, but some of them will receive a placebo. (Photo by Richard Juilliart/AFP/Getty Images)
Professor Adrian Hill, Director leader of the trials for the experimental Ebola vaccine holds a vial of the vaccine in Oxford, England Wednesday Sept. 17, 2014. A former nurse will be the first of 60 healthy volunteers in the U.K. who will receive the vaccine. The vaccine was developed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and GlaxoSmithKline and targets the Zaire strain of Ebola, the cause of the ongoing outbreak in West Africa. A trial of the same vaccine has already begun in the U.S. (AP Photo/Steve Parsons/Pool)
Health workers places the body of a man, inside a plastic body bag as he is suspected of dying due to the Ebola virus as people, rear, look on in Monrovia, Liberia, Thursday, Sept. 4, 2014. As West Africa struggles to contain the biggest ever outbreak of Ebola, some experts say an unusual but simple treatment might help: the blood of survivors. The evidence is mixed for using infection-fighting antibodies from survivors' blood for Ebola, but without any licensed drugs or vaccines for the deadly disease, some say it's worth a shot. (AP Photo/Abbas Dulleh)
A doctor holds a syringe containing the Ebola vaccine called ChAd3 during trials on November 4, 2014 at the CHUV hospital in Lausanne. Most of the 120 volunteers will receive the experimental vaccine made by Britain's GlaxoSmithKine,Âwhich is based on a genetically modified chimpanzee adenovirus, but some of them will receive a placebo. (Photo by Richard Juilliart/AFP/Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - OCTOBER 24: Jeff Hulbert of Annapolis, Maryland, holds up a sign in front of the White House on October 24, 2014 in Washington, D.C. Hulbert is protesting for a mandatory quarantine for people that have returned from Ebola affected countries. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
Police set up a barrier in front of The Gutter bowling alley in Brooklyn, New York, on October 24, 2014. Doctor Craig Spencer visited the bowling alley before being Quarantined at the Bellevue Hospital after testing positive for Ebola. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned from treating Ebola patients in Guinea, the epicenter of the world's worst outbreak of the disease, tested positive for Ebola on October 23, making him the city's first Ebola patient. New York's mayor said America's largest city was fully equipped to handle Ebola as authorities sought to calm fears Friday about the virus spreading, after a doctor tested positive for the disease. (Photo by JEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images)
Dr Felicity Hartnell, who is a clinical research fellow at Oxford University, injects former nurse Ruth Atkins the first of 60 healthy volunteers in the UK who will receive an experimental vaccine against Ebola in Oxford, England Wednesday Sept. 17, 2014. The vaccine was developed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and GlaxoSmithKline and targets the Zaire strain of Ebola, the cause of the ongoing outbreak in West Africa. A trial of the same vaccine has already begun in the U.S. (AP Photo/Steve Parsons/Pool)
A sign on the gate for the entrance to Bellevue Hospital is viewed on October 24, 2014 in New York, the morning after it was confirmed that Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned to New York from West Africa tested positive for Ebola. New York confirmed the first case of Ebola in the largest city in the United States as the EU dramatically ramped up aid Friday to contain the killer epidemic ravaging west Africa.The EU announcement of one billion euros ($1.3 billion) for the worst-hit countries comes as fears of a spread of the virus grew, with the first confirmed case in Mali, where a two-year-old girl has tested positive. Craig Spencer was placed in isolation at Manhattan's Bellevue Hospital Center, officials said. (Photo by TIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images)
New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, left, speaks as New Jersey Governor Chris Christie listens at a news conference, Friday, Oct. 24, 2014 in New York. The governors announced a mandatory quarantine for people returning to the United States through airports in New York and New Jersey who are deemed "high risk." In the first application of the new set of standards, the states are quarantining a female healthcare worker returning from Africa who took care of Ebola patients. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)
Dr Felicity Hartnell, who is a clinical research fellow at Oxford University, holds a vial of an experimental vaccine against Ebola in Oxford, England Wednesday Sept. 17, 2014. A former nurse will be the first of 60 healthy volunteers in the UK who will receive the vaccine. The vaccine was developed by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and GlaxoSmithKline and targets the Zaire strain of Ebola, the cause of the ongoing outbreak in West Africa. A trial of the same vaccine has already begun in the U.S. (AP Photo/Steve Parsons/Pool)
New York Gov. Andrew Coumo speaks during a news conference at Bellevue Hospital to discuss Craig Spencer, a Doctors Without Borders physician who tested positive for the Ebola virus, Thursday, Oct. 23, 2014, in New York. Spencer recently returned to the city after treating Ebola patients in West Africa. (AP Photo/John Minchillo)
New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, left, listens as New Jersey Governor Chris Christie talks at a news conference, Friday, Oct. 24, 2014 in New York. The governors announced a mandatory quarantine for people returning to the United States through airports in New York and New Jersey who are deemed "high risk." In the first application of the new set of standards, the states are quarantining a female healthcare worker returning from Africa who took care of Ebola patients. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)
Dr. Craig Spencer, of Columbia University Medical Center, has been identified by the New York Daily News as a doctor who recently returned from treating Ebola patients in Guinea. CUMC is near to the West 147th Street apartment the 33-year-old doctor was taken from this afternoon. (Facebook)
A newspaper vendor holds up a copy of the NY Post in front of the entrance to Bellevue Hospital October 24, 2014 in New York, the morning after it was confirmed that Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned to New York from West Africa tested positive for Ebola. New York confirmed the first case of Ebola in the largest city in the United States as the EU dramatically ramped up aid Friday to contain the killer epidemic ravaging west Africa.The EU announcement of one billion euros ($1.3 billion) for the worst-hit countries comes as fears of a spread of the virus grew, with the first confirmed case in Mali, where a two-year-old girl has tested positive. Craig Spencer was placed in isolation at Manhattan's Bellevue Hospital Center, officials said. (Photo by TIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images)
Residents pass the apartment building of Doctor Craig Spencer on October 24, 2014 in New York. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned from treating Ebola patients in Guinea, the epicenter of the world's worst outbreak of the disease, tested positive for Ebola on October 23, making him the city's first Ebola patient. (Photo by DON EMMERT/AFP/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 23: In this image handout provided by the Office of Mayor of New York, Mayor Bill de Blasio speaks with U.S. President Barack Obama following an Ebola-related press conference at Bellevue Hospital in in New York City. After returning to New York City from Guinea where he was working with Doctors Without Borders treating Ebola patients, Dr. Craig Spencer was quarantined after showing symptoms consistent with the virus. Spencer was taken to Bellevue hospital to undergo testing. According to reports, test results have confirmed that Spencer has been diagnosed with the Ebola virus. (Photo by Rob Bennett/Office of Mayor of New York/Getty Images)
New York Police Department officers guard TV news trucks on 1st Avenue in front of Bellevue Hospital on October 24, 2014. Doctor Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned from treating Ebola patients in Guinea, the epicenter of the world's worst outbreak of the disease, tested positive for Ebola on October 23, making him the city's first Ebola patient. (Photo by TIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24: Police keep members of the media and others back from the closed Brooklyn bowling alley that New York City's first Ebola patient visited before showing symptoms of the virus on October 24, 2014 in New York City. Dr. Craig Spencer, who returned to the US from Guinea 10 days ago, tested positive for Ebola on Thursday and is now being cared for at Bellevue Hospital. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, recently visited the Williamsburg bowling alley The Gutter. The Gutter has closed temporarily as an extra precaution and to be cleaned. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24: An employee from Bio Recovery Corporation carries equipment into 546 West 147th Street, the apartment building of Dr. Craig Spencer, the doctor recently diagnosed with Ebola, on October 24, 2014 in New York City. Bio Recovery Corporation was handling the clean-up of Dr. Spencer's apartment after he was diagnosed with Ebola on Thursday night. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24, 2014: United States Postal Service mailman Keven Ngo makes a delivery to West 147th Street, while wearing a protective mask, on October 24, 2014 in New York, NY. Ngo said that he didn't typically wear a mask but, since Dr. Craig Spencer was diagnosed with Ebola, he had begun wearing the mask for his protection. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
Demonstrators with the United African Congress (UAC) hold a rally for the 'Stop Ebola' movement in New York on October 24, 2014 the morning after it was confirmed that Doctor Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned to New York from West Africa tested positive for Ebola, making him New York City's first Ebola patient. AFP PHOTO / Timothy A. Clary (Photo credit should read TIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images)
Police stand in front of the gate of The Gutter bowling alley in Brooklyn, New York, on October 24, 2014. Doctor Craig Spencer visited the bowling alley before being Quarantined at the Bellevue Hospital after testing positive for Ebola. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned from treating Ebola patients in Guinea, the epicenter of the world's worst outbreak of the disease, tested positive for Ebola on October 23, making him the city's first Ebola patient. New York's mayor said America's largest city was fully equipped to handle Ebola as authorities sought to calm fears Friday about the virus spreading, after a doctor tested positive for the disease. AFP PHOTO/Jewel Samad (Photo credit should read JEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images)
Hazmat crews arrive outside the apartment building of Dr. Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, October 24, 2014 in New York. Spencer, who has been diagnosed with Ebola is being treated in an isolation ward at Manhattan's Bellevue Hospital, a designated Ebola center. New York's mayor said America's largest city was fully equipped to handle Ebola as authorities sought to calm fears Friday about the virus spreading after a doctor tested positive for the disease. Craig Spencer, 33, was in a stable condition in isolation at Bellevue Hospital Center on Friday after testing positive for the illness, which has killed nearly 4,900 people in West Africa. He was rushed to the hospital with fever and gastrointestinal symptoms on Thursday, a week after returning from treating Ebola patients in Guinea with charity Doctors Without Borders. AFP PHOTO/Don Emmert (Photo credit should read DON EMMERT/AFP/Getty Images)
Hazmat crews arrive outside the apartment building of Dr. Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, October 24, 2014 in New York. Spencer, who has been diagnosed with Ebola is being treated in an isolation ward at Manhattan's Bellevue Hospital, a designated Ebola center. New York's mayor said America's largest city was fully equipped to handle Ebola as authorities sought to calm fears Friday about the virus spreading after a doctor tested positive for the disease. Craig Spencer, 33, was in a stable condition in isolation at Bellevue Hospital Center on Friday after testing positive for the illness, which has killed nearly 4,900 people in West Africa. He was rushed to the hospital with fever and gastrointestinal symptoms on Thursday, a week after returning from treating Ebola patients in Guinea with charity Doctors Without Borders. AFP PHOTO/Don Emmert (Photo credit should read DON EMMERT/AFP/Getty Images)
Traffic passes Bellevue Hospital, Friday, Oct. 24, 2014, in New York. Dr. Craig Spencer, a resident of New York City and a member of Doctors Without Borders, was admitted to Bellevue Thursday and has been diagnosed with Ebola. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 23: Police officers stand outside 546 W. 147th street, the apartment building of Dr. Craig Spencer, October 23, 2014 in New York City. After returning to New York City from Guinea where he was working with Doctors Without Borders treating Ebola patients, Spencer was quarantined after showing symptoms consistent with the virus. Spencer was taken to Bellevue hospital to undergo testing. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 23, 2014: A health alert is displayed at the entrance to Bellevue Hospital October 23, 2014 in New York City. After returning to New York City from Guinea where he was working with Doctors Without Borders treating Ebola patients, Dr. Craig Spencer was quarantined after showing symptoms consistent with the virus. Spencer was taken to Bellevue hospital to undergo testing. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 23: A New York City Police officer stands at the entrance to Bellevue Hospital October 23, 2014 in New York City. After returning to New York City from Guinea where he was working with Doctors Without Borders treating Ebola patients, Dr. Craig Spencer was quarantined after showing symptoms consistent with the virus. Spencer was taken to Bellevue hospital to undergo testing. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: Bellevue Hospital is viewed following a news conference on how the facility would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
Ebola Virus at 108,000 Magnification
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: A member of Bellevue's Hospital staff wears protective clothing during a demonstration on how they would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: Bellevue Hospital is viewed following a news conference on how the facility would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
EBOLA VIRUSES,DISPLAYING TYPICAL SHAPES, INCLUDING RECURVING ENDS
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: Bellevue Hospital is viewed following a news conference on how the facility would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: Members of Bellevue Hospital staff wear protective clothing as they demonstrate how they would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: Members of Bellevue Hospital staff wear protective clothing as they demonstrate how they would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
Ebola Zaire virus
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: A member of Bellevue's Hospital staff wears protective clothing during a demonstration on how they would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 08: Members of Bellevue Hospital staff wear protective clothing as they demonstrate how they would receive a suspected Ebola patient on October 8, 2014 in New York City. If the patient was confirmed to be carrying the deadly virus the person would be sent to an isolation unit for treatment. The first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, Liberian Thomas Duncan, has died at a Dallas hospital, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital said. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24: A police car sits in front of 546 W. 147th street, the apartment building of Dr. Craig Spencer, a doctor recently diagnosed with ebola, on October 24, 2014 in New York, NY. The doctor, who recently returned from Guinea after working with Doctors Without Borders, was diagnosed with ebola on Thursday evening after developing a fever earlier in the day. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 23: A health alert is displayed at the entrance to Bellevue Hospital October 23, 2014 in New York City. After returning to New York City from Guinea where he was working with Doctors Without Borders treating Ebola patients, Dr. Craig Spencer was quarantined after showing symptoms consistent with the virus. Spencer was taken to Bellevue hospital to undergo testing. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 23: A man mops the lobby of 546 W. 147th street, the apartment building of Dr. Craig Spencer, October 23, 2014 in New York City. After returning to New York City from Guinea where he was working with Doctors Without Borders treating Ebola patients, Spencer was quarantined after showing symptoms consistent with the virus. Spencer was taken to Bellevue hospital to undergo testing. According to reports, test results have confirmed that Spencer has been diagnosed witht the Ebola virus. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
Members of the Department of Defense's Ebola Military Medical Support Team dress with protective gear during training at San Antonio Military Medical Center, Friday, Oct. 24, 2014, in San Antonio. The team will consist of 20 critical care nurses, 5 doctors trained in infectious disease, and 5 trainers in infectious disease protocols. (AP Photo/Eric Gay)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24: United States Postal Service mailman Keven Ngo makes a delivery to West 147th Street, while wearing a protective mask, on October 24, 2014 in New York, NY. Ngo said that he didn't typically wear a mask but, since Dr. Craig Spencer was diagnosed with Ebola, he had begun wearing the mask for his protection. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
Demonstrators with the United African Congress (UAC) hold a rally for the 'Stop Ebola' movement in New York on October 24, 2014 the morning after it was confirmed that Doctor Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned to New York from West Africa tested positive for Ebola, making him New York City's first Ebola patient. AFP PHOTO / Timothy A. Clary (Photo credit should read TIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images)
Police stand in front of the gate of The Gutter bowling alley in Brooklyn, New York, on October 24, 2014. Doctor Craig Spencer visited the bowling alley before being Quarantined at the Bellevue Hospital after testing positive for Ebola. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, who recently returned from treating Ebola patients in Guinea, the epicenter of the world's worst outbreak of the disease, tested positive for Ebola on October 23, making him the city's first Ebola patient. New York's mayor said America's largest city was fully equipped to handle Ebola as authorities sought to calm fears Friday about the virus spreading, after a doctor tested positive for the disease. AFP PHOTO/Jewel Samad (Photo credit should read JEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images)
Hazmat crews arrive outside the apartment building of Dr. Craig Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, October 24, 2014 in New York. Spencer, who has been diagnosed with Ebola is being treated in an isolation ward at Manhattan's Bellevue Hospital, a designated Ebola center. New York's mayor said America's largest city was fully equipped to handle Ebola as authorities sought to calm fears Friday about the virus spreading after a doctor tested positive for the disease. Craig Spencer, 33, was in a stable condition in isolation at Bellevue Hospital Center on Friday after testing positive for the illness, which has killed nearly 4,900 people in West Africa. He was rushed to the hospital with fever and gastrointestinal symptoms on Thursday, a week after returning from treating Ebola patients in Guinea with charity Doctors Without Borders. AFP PHOTO/Don Emmert (Photo credit should read DON EMMERT/AFP/Getty Images)
Workers from BioRecoveryCorp carry equipment from the apartment building of Ebola patient Dr. Craig Spencer Friday, Oct. 24, 2014, in New York. Spencer remained in stable condition while isolated in a hospital, talking by cellphone to his family and assisting disease detectives who are accounting for his every movement since arriving in New York from Guinea via Europe on Oct. 17. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II)
A worker from BioRecoveryCorp carry equipment from the apartment building of Ebola patient Dr. Craig Spencer Friday, Oct. 24, 2014, in New York. Spencer remained in stable condition while isolated in a hospital, talking by cellphone to his family and assisting disease detectives who are accounting for his every movement since arriving in New York from Guinea via Europe on Oct. 17. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24: A man shows the front page of a local newspaper while reading in the subway on October 24, 2014 in New York City. Dr. Craig Spencer, who returned to New York from Guinea 10 days ago, tested positive for Ebola on October 23 and is now being cared for at Bellevue Hospital. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, rode the subway after returning home. (Photo by Kena Betancur/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24, 2014: A couple read news about Ebola on a screen in Times Square on October 24, 2014 in New York City. Dr. Craig Spencer, who returned to New York from Guinea 10 days ago, tested positive for Ebola on October 23 and is now being cared for at Bellevue Hospital. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, travelled around the city after returning home. (Photo by Kena Betancur/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24: Bio Recovery Corporation employees carry equipment into 546 West 147th Street October 24, 2014 in New York City. After returning to New York City from Guinea, where he was working with Doctors Without Borders treating Ebola patients, Dr. Craig Spencer was quarantined after showing symptoms consistent with the virus. Spencer was taken to Bellevue hospital to undergo testing where he was officially diagnosed with the Ebola virus on October 23rd. (Photo by Bryan Thomas/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - OCTOBER 24: Brooklyn Borough President Eric Adams speaks in front of The Gutter bowling alley where New York City's first Ebola patient visited before showing symptoms of the virus on October 24, 2014 in New York City. Dr. Craig Spencer, who returned to the US from Guinea 10 days ago, tested positive for Ebola on Thursday and is now being cared for at Bellevue Hospital. Spencer, a member of Doctors Without Borders, recently visited the Williamsburg bowling alley The Gutter. The Gutter has closed temporarily as an extra precaution and to be cleaned. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
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The World Health Organization says the Ebola epidemic has infected more than 22,000 people and claimed more than 8,900 lives over the past year. Without a vaccine, officials have fought the outbreak with old-fashioned public health measures, including isolating the sick, tracking and quarantining those who had contact with them, and setting up teams to safely bury bodies.

The vaccines being tested won't be an immediate solution, said Bruce Aylward, who is leading WHO's Ebola response.

"People keep saying we're going to have a vaccine, but that will be in the middle of the year at the earliest," he said last week. "We might be able to vaccinate some first responders but it's a complete uncertainty. We have no idea if it will confer protection, even though the indications are good."

Both experimental vaccines showed promise in first-stage human safety tests, Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has said. One was developed by the National Institutes of Health and is being manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. The other was developed by Canadian health officials and is licensed to two U.S. companies, NewLink Genetics and Merck.

The vaccine trials come as the three most affected countries - Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia - appear to be making strides against the Ebola epidemic first identified last March. The U.N. health agency said last week that the countries had reported fewer than 100 cases in the past week, for the first time since June.

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