On Paris terrorist's turf, fears of more in the pipeline

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Amedy Coulibaly's Hometown Scrutinized Over Terrorist Attacks

GRIGNY, France (AP) -- The housing project that was home to Amedy Coulibaly is a concrete labyrinth so scary that doctors refuse to make house calls and mail workers won't deliver parcels. Drug dealers and teenage thugs hold sway over the blighted neighborhood.

Even the police venture only with caution into the Grande Borne, especially after dark. The project's maze of serpentine, run-down buildings housing 11,000 people gives gangs plenty of cover to mount ambushes against officers with pump-action shotguns and gasoline bombs.

It would be simplistic to argue that Coulibaly - a partner of the Charlie Hebdo attackers, killer of a policewoman and four hostages at a kosher store - became a terrorist because he grew up in this enclave of high unemployment and crime where the authority of the French state is weak. Many others from the Grande Borne and his generation turned out just fine. One of Coulibaly's sisters is making her name as a dancer. A former classmate is a financial comptroller, another helps manage the career of 2005 hurdles world champion Ladji Doucoure.

"Our towns are not terrorist factories," Philippe Rio, the mayor who also grew up in the Grande Borne, insisted in an interview with The Associated Press.

But it was here in what the mayor calls one of France's "abandoned, difficult territories" that Coulibaly started to veer off the rails as a teenager, graduating from petty crime to armed robberies that set him on a trajectory of multiple spells in prison. Behind bars, he met Cherif Kouachi, one of the Charlie Hebdo assassins, and others with whom he became radicalized.

Built in the 1960s as affordable working-class housing, the Grande Borne now looks like a giant social and architectural mistake. Its lack of roads were intended to make it child-friendly but ended up making it difficult to police. The three, four and five-story blocks with fetid stairwells and dead-ends also make perfect crime hideouts and stashes for drugs.

Poorly served by public transport and cut off by a motorway - as well as its turbulent reputation - the estate was one of the hotspots in a nationwide wave of riots in 2005 that exposed the deep wells of anger in France's depressed "banlieues," the suburbs where France built grim projects to house workers from former colonies who provided muscle for France's postwar growth miracle.

Their children and grandchildren now languish there - with, some say, few ways out.

Monique Vareillaud, Coulibaly's primary school teacher when he was 8, remembers a kid "just like all the others" but also "the little king" of his large family - the only boy among nine sisters. In a school photo from the following year, Coulibaly is the only pupil leaning forward on his chair, chin resting pensively on the back of his hand, like Auguste Rodin's sculpture "The Thinker."

In his teens, the authority of school and parents began to lose grip on Coulibaly, and crime sank in its claws. His Islamic faith also "was starting to take shape," said Grande Borne social worker De-Charles Claude Aka. Coulibaly became more dedicated than other neighborhood kids in attending daily prayers and, on a trip to Disneyland, kept himself apart from the girls, Aka recalled in an AP interview.

Aka lost sight of Coulibaly in 1999. Then suddenly last year, his former charge reappeared in his office, seemingly with something important to say. Whatever it was, Aka failed to tease it out of him. He is now haunted by the idea that Coulibaly may already have been plotting last week's killing spree, and perhaps could have been reasoned with. Instead, they made small talk.

"To be honest, I kicked myself," Aka said. "I started to run the film in my head of his visit. He had bulked up so much, become a big boy."

By then, Coulibaly had done long spells of prison time, with six separate convictions for robbery, armed robbery and drug trafficking and another on terrorism-related charges.

In 2000, when Coulibaly was 18, police shot and killed one of his teenage friends when they were stealing motorbikes together, neighborhood police say. In a later drama, his lawyer Damien Brossier recounted, Coulibaly's getaway car plunged off a bridge after he robbed a sports clothing store at gunpoint. Coulibaly coolly carried on as if nothing had happened.

Brossier also defended Coulibaly after he and a friend drove more than 200 kilometers (120 miles) by motorbike to rob a bank and then two cafes. "Quite a hothead," Brossier said in an AP interview.

Out of prison, Coulibaly became increasingly radicalized, regularly visiting and seeking advice from Djamel Beghal, a convicted terrorist living under surveillance in rural central France. In an Islamic religious ceremony in 2009 not recognized by French law, Coulibaly wed Hayat Boumeddiene, a Frenchwoman of North African origin who, unusually for France, wore an Islamic veil even though doing so cost her job as a cashier. Boumeddiene traveled to Turkey before the Charlie Hebdo attacks and Turkish officials confirm she crossed over into Syria.

Brossier says it is wrong to automatically assume that other criminals like Coulibaly also will also graduate to Islamic terrorism. But, in defending them, he also sees how kids from the wrong side of the tracks in places like the Grande Borne copy older delinquents.

Rather than survive on social welfare like their parents, they get lured by the easy money of drug dealing and crime. Often, the next stop is the huge Fleury-Merogis prison next to the Grande Borne where Coulibaly served time. Coulibaly surreptitiously filmed the prison's hellish conditions, which then were subsequently exposed in a TV documentary.

"The spiral starts progressively," Brossier said. "There is a huge waste of potential in these cities."

Coulibaly's former kickboxing coach in the Grande Borne, Rombo Togbahoun, fears there are more like him in the pipeline.

"Look at those kids out there with their hoodies," he said. "We're only seeing the start of the problem. That was just the first Amedy Coulibaly. There are lots of little Coulibalys."

Has much changed in the Grande Borne and other rotting projects since the government launched action plans for them after the 2005 riots?

"Yes and no," Rio, the mayor, replies.

The Grande Borne now has a new cultural center and new gymnasium - which was quickly targeted in an arson attack last October - and is getting a tram link and other improvements. But 40 percent of residents aged 16-25 have no work. After being robbed four times in one year, the pharmacy shut down. There is just one full-time doctor. Residents and the mayor complain that potential employers turn people away because they are from the Grande Borne.

"The republic must ask itself real questions," Rio said. "For us to feel part of the republic, to love the republic, the republic has to love us back."

Racial discrimination also is an obstacle for France's minorities. The mayor, who is white, acknowledged that his skin color might be part of the reason why his trajectory from the same estate has been so different from that of the black Coulibaly, born in France to parents from Mali.

Minorities have long complained that their names and color can hold them back in work and careers and attract greater police scrutiny and checks. This in a political context where the anti-immigration, extreme-right National Front party has made electoral headway, making some minority French citizens feel even more unwelcome.

"I went through the same school (as Coulibaly), which means we had the same teachers at one time," the mayor said. "That fills me, and many people here of my age, with questions.

"I'm not called Mohammed or Mamadou," he said. "I know that really is an extra difficulty."

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On Paris terrorist's turf, fears of more in the pipeline
This photo shows a page in the ultra-Orthodox HaMevaser newspaper, containing a manipulated photo of world leaders marching in Paris, France on Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015, digitally omitting German Chancellor Angela Merkel. The small Jewish newspaper in Israel is making waves internationally for removing Merkel from a photo of last week's Paris march out of modesty. HaMevaser readers could not know that, however, as her picture was digitally removed, leaving Abbas standing next to Hollande. Israeli media joked it was meant to bring Abbas closer to Israeli premier Benjamin Netanyahu, who was standing nearby. (AP Photo/HaMevaser Newspaper)
From the left, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, former French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, French President Francois Hollande, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, EU president Donald Tusk and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas march during a rally in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Philippe Wojazer, Pool)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A memorial is seen near the Charlie Hebdo offices during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A memorial is seen near the Charlie Hebdo offices during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A memorial is seen near the Charlie Hebdo offices during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A memorial is seen near the Charlie Hebdo offices during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A memorial is seen near the Charlie Hebdo offices during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A memorial is seen near the Charlie Hebdo offices during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
A man holds up a placard that reads "I am Charlie" at the Place de la Nation in Paris Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. More than 40 world leaders, their arms linked, marched through Paris Sunday to rally for unity and freedom of expression and to honor 17 victims of three days of terrorist attacks. (AP Photo/Burhan Ozbilici)
A girl holds up a placard that reads "I am Charlie" in several languages at the Place de la Nation in Paris Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. More than 40 world leaders, their arms linked, marched through Paris Sunday to rally for unity and freedom of expression and to honor 17 victims of three days of terrorist attacks. (AP Photo/Burhan Ozbilici)
Signs hang at the French Alliance community center in solidarity with the victims of recent attacks in France, in Quito, Ecuador, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. People gathered to honor the victims of the shootings at the Paris satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo and a kosher supermarket in France. Demonstrations were held Sunday in cities around France and around the world. (AP Photo/Dolores Ochoa)
A woman holds a sign that reads in French "I am Charlie" during a gathering in solidarity with the victims of recent attacks in France at the French Alliance community center in Quito, Ecuador, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. People gathered to honor the victims of the shootings at the Paris satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo and a kosher supermarket in France. Demonstrations were held Sunday in cities around France and around the world. (AP Photo/Dolores Ochoa)
People wave national flags and hold placards that read "I am Charlie" at the Place de la Nation in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. More than 40 world leaders, their arms linked, marched through Paris Sunday to rally for unity and freedom of expression and to honor 17 victims of three days of terrorist attacks. (AP Photo/Burhan Ozbilici)
French expatriates David Nalmin, right, Gabriel Giraldi, and American Patty Rasmussen carry a French flag during a silent walk through Piedmont Park in Atlanta, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015, to support France after a three-day terrorism spree around Paris that killed 17 people last week. (AP Photo/John Amis)
The crowd march in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. Hundreds of thousands of people marched through Paris on Sunday in a massive show of unity and defiance in the face of terrorism that killed 17 people in France's bleakest moment in half a century. Banner reads: Press is Charlie. (AP Photo/Laurent Cipriani)
Israelis, mostly French Jews, light candles as the names of the victims are placed during a gathering to pay tribute to victims of the attack on the kosher supermarket in Paris where four hostages were killed on Friday, in Netanya, Israel, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. (AP Photo/Ariel Schalit)
People start gathering at Republique square before the demonstration, in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Laurent Cipriani)
Joel Mergui, left, president of the French Jewish Consistory, Roger Cukierman, center, President of the Representative Council of France's Jewish Associations (CRIF) and Sacha Reingewirtz, head of the Jewish Students of France, answer reporters after a meeting with French President Francois Hollande at the Elysee Palace in Paris, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/David Azia)
Children and adults start gathering at Republique square before the demonstration, in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Laurent Cipriani)
French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve, left, welcomes Britain's Interior Minister Theresa May before the start of an international meeting aimed at fighting terrorism, in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)
U.S Attorney General Eric Holder, left, is welcomed by French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve before the start of an international meeting aimed at fighting terrorism, in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)
Belgian Interior Minister Jan Jambon, left, is welcomed by French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve before the start of an international meeting aimed at fighting terrorism, in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)
Members of the Union of French Jewish place candles during a demonstration outside a kosher grocery store where four hostages were killed on Friday in Paris, Saturday, Jan. 10, 2015. Hundreds of thousands of people marched Saturday in cities from Toulouse in the south to Rennes in the west to honor the victims, and Paris expects hundreds of thousands more at Sunday’s unity rally. More than 2,000 police are being deployed, in addition to thousands already guarding synagogues, mosques, schools and other sites around France. (AP Photo/Francois Mori)
Laura Dugué, originally of Toulouse, France, symbolically holds a pen in the air as several hundred people gather in solidarity with victims of two terrorist attacks in Paris, one at the office of weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo and another at a kosher market, in New York's Washington Square Park, Saturday, Jan. 10, 2015. (AP Photo/Jason DeCrow)
French Prime Minister Manuel Valls, left, waves to the public as he enters in his car during a demonstration organized by members of the Union of French Jewish students outside a kosher grocery store where four hostages were killed on Friday in Paris, Saturday, Jan. 10, 2015. Hundreds of thousands of people marched Saturday in cities from Toulouse in the south to Rennes in the west to honor the victims, and Paris expects hundreds of thousands more at Sunday’s unity rally. More than 2,000 police are being deployed, in addition to thousands already guarding synagogues, mosques, schools and other sites around France. (AP Photo/Francois Mori)
A man arrives at Republique square before the demonstration, in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Laurent Cipriani)
German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere hugs his French counterpart Bernard Cazeneuve, hidden behind, before the start of an international meeting aimed at fighting terrorism, in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: Pens and candles are seen on the floor on January 11, 2015, as people gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: People gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France on January 11, 2015 as French police take security measures in the city. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: French police officer stands guard on January 11, 2015, as people gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: People gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France on January 11, 2015 as French police take security measures in the city. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
(Photo credit should read JOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: People gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France on January 11, 2015 as French police take security measures in the city. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: French police stand guard on January 11, 2015, as people gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: French police soldier stands guard on January 11, 2015, as people gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
(Photo credit should read RAYMOND ROIG/AFP/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: French police officer stands guard on January 11, 2015, as people gather for the start of a unity march in Paris, France. Huge crowds and some 40 world leaders are expected in Paris for a unity march after 17 people were killed during three days of deadly terror attacks. (Photo by Dursun Aydemir/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
(Photo credit should read BERTRAND GUAY/AFP/Getty Images)
(Photo credit should read JOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
(Photo credit should read RAYMOND ROIG/AFP/Getty Images)
(Photo credit should read RAYMOND ROIG/AFP/Getty Images)
(Photo credit should read RAYMOND ROIG/AFP/Getty Images)
People watch from their roof-top apartment as some thousands of people gather at Republique square in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. Thousands of people began filling France’s iconic Republique plaza, and world leaders converged on Paris in a rally of defiance and sorrow on Sunday to honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)
A demonstrator holds up an oversized pencil at Republique Square, Paris, before the start of a demonstration, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. A rally of defiance and sorrow, protected by an unparalleled level of security, on Sunday will honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed in Paris that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Laurent Cipriani)
The crowd gather at Republique square in Paris, France, Sunday, Jan. 11, 2015. Thousands of people began filling France’s iconic Republique plaza, and world leaders converged on Paris in a rally of defiance and sorrow on Sunday to honor the 17 victims of three days of bloodshed that left France on alert for more violence. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)
People attend before a rally in Rennes, western France, on January 11, 2015, as tens of thousands of people stage rallies across France following four days of terror and twin siege dramas that claimed 17 victims, including the victims of the first attack by armed gunmen on the offices of French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris on January 7. AFP PHOTO / JEAN-FRANCOIS MONIER (Photo credit should read JEAN-FRANCOIS MONIER/AFP/Getty Images)
UMP right-wing party member Francois Baroin (3rdL), French Socialist Party (PS) first secretary Jean-Christophe Cambadelis (5thL), UMP right-wing party member Jean-Francois Cope (C), Roger Cukierman, President of the CRIF (Representative Council of France's Jewish Associations), former French employers union MEDEF president Laurence Parisot, Jean-Paul Huchon President of the Ile de France region, UMP right-wing party member Valerie Pecresse, the Mayor of Lille and Socialist Party member Martine Aubry, Hassen Chalghoumi, Imam of the northern Paris suburb of Drancy and president of the French Association of Imams, French writer Marek Halter, UMP right-wing party member Eric Woerth, Joel Mergui, president of the Central Jewish Consistory of France and the Rector of Paris' Mosque Dalil Boubakeur (front) take part in a Unity rally Marche Republicaine in Paris on January 11, 2015 in tribute to the 17 victims of a three-day killing spree by homegrown Islamists. The killings began on January 7 with an assault on the Charlie Hebdo satirical magazine in Paris that saw two brothers massacre 12 people including some of the country's best-known cartoonists, the killing of a policewoman and the storming of a Jewish supermarket on the eastern fringes of the capital which killed 4 local residents. AFP PHOTO / THOMAS SAMSON (Photo credit should read THOMAS SAMSON/AFP/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: French President Francois Hollande (R) welcomes German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the Elysee Palace before attending a Unity rally in tribute to the 17 victims of a three-day killing spree by homegrown Islamists on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. A mass unity rally to be held in Paris following the recent terrorist attacks on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people are expected to converge in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. French President Francois Hollande will lead the march and will be joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist atrocities started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Thierry Chesnot/Getty Images)
Demonstrators hold placards as they take part in a protest outside the Kizilay Square in Ankara on January 11, 2015 in tribute to the 12 people killed at terror attack on Charlie Hebdo offices in Paris. AFP PHOTO/ADEM ALTAN (Photo credit should read ADEM ALTAN/AFP/Getty Images)
German Chancellor Angela Merkel (2L), Belgian Prime Minister Charles Michel (3L), British Prime Minister David Cameron (4L) leave the Elysee Palace before attending a Unity rally Marche Republicaine on January 11, 2015 in Paris in tribute to the 17 victims of a three-day killing spree by homegrown Islamists. The killings began on January 7 with an assault on the Charlie Hebdo satirical magazine in Paris that saw two brothers massacre 12 people including some of the country's best-known cartoonists, the killing of a policewoman and the storming of a Jewish supermarket on the eastern fringes of the capital which killed 4 local residents. AFP PHOTO / DOMINIQUE FAGET (Photo credit should read DOMINIQUE FAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
(FromL) French Prime minister Manuel Valls, French President Francois Hollande, Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo, European Parliament President Martin Schulz, Senegal President Macky Sall and Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu leave the Elysee Palace before attending a Unity rally Marche Republicaine on January 11, 2015 in Paris in tribute to the 17 victims of a three-day killing spree by homegrown Islamists. The killings began on January 7 with an assault on the Charlie Hebdo satirical magazine in Paris that saw two brothers massacre 12 people including some of the country's best-known cartoonists, the killing of a policewoman and the storming of a Jewish supermarket on the eastern fringes of the capital which killed 4 local residents. AFP PHOTO / DOMINIQUE FAGET (Photo credit should read DOMINIQUE FAGET/AFP/Getty Images)
People hold signs and the French flag as they gather at the Place de la Nation during the Unity rally Marche Republicaine on January 11, 2015 in Paris in tribute to the 17 victims of a three-day killing spree by homegrown Islamists. The killings began on January 7 with an assault on the Charlie Hebdo satirical magazine in Paris that saw two brothers massacre 12 people including some of the country's best-known cartoonists, the killing of a policewoman and the storming of a Jewish supermarket on the eastern fringes of the capital which killed 4 local residents. AFP PHOTO / MARTIN BUREAU (Photo credit should read MARTIN BUREAU/AFP/Getty Images)
French President Francois Hollande (R) welcomes Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (L) at the Elysee Palace before attending a Unity rally Marche Republicaine on January 11, 2015 in Paris in tribute to the 17 victims of a three-day killing spree by homegrown Islamists. The killings began on January 7 with an assault on the Charlie Hebdo satirical magazine in Paris that saw two brothers massacre 12 people including some of the country's best-known cartoonists, the killing of a policewoman and the storming of a Jewish supermarket on the eastern fringes of the capital which killed 4 local residents. AFP PHOTO / MATTHIEU ALEXANDRE (Photo credit should read MATTHIEU ALEXANDRE/AFP/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: A general view of Place de la Republique during the mass unity rally on January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people have converged in central Paris for the Unity March joining in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks in the country. President Francois Hollande of France led the march and was joined by world leaders in a sign of unity. The terrorist acts started on Wednesday with the attack on the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12, and ended on Friday with sieges at a printing company in Dammartin en Goele and a Kosher supermarket in Paris with four hostages and three suspects being killed. A fourth suspect, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, escaped and is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: People stand on a newsstand at 'Place de la Republique' during a unity rally in Paris led by French president Francois Hollande and other world leaders following the recent terrorist attacks, January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people converged in central Paris for the Unity March in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks which began on Wednesday, January 8, 2014 with an attack on French satarical magazine Charlie Hebdo and continued through Friday with attacks at a printing company and a Kosher supermarket. Three suspects were killed in seiges while a fourth, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Richard Bord/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: Demonstrators make their way from 'Place de la Republique' to 'Place de la Nation' in a unity rally in Paris led by French president Francois Hollande and other world leaders following the recent terrorist attacks, January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people converged in central Paris for the Unity March in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks which began on Wednesday, January 8, 2014 with an attack on French satarical magazine Charlie Hebdo and continued through Friday with attacks at a printing company and a Kosher supermarket. Three suspects were killed in seiges while a fourth, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Richard Bord/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: Demonstrators make their way from 'Place de la Republique' to 'Place de la Nation' in a unity rally in Paris led by French president Francois Hollande and other world leaders following the recent terrorist attacks, January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people converged in central Paris for the Unity March in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks which began on Wednesday, January 8, 2014 with an attack on French satarical magazine Charlie Hebdo and continued through Friday with attacks at a printing company and a Kosher supermarket. Three suspects were killed in seiges while a fourth, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Richard Bord/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: Demonstrators make their way from 'Place de la Republique' to 'Place de la Nation' in a unity rally in Paris led by French president Francois Hollande and other world leaders following the recent terrorist attacks, January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people converged in central Paris for the Unity March in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks which began on Wednesday, January 8, 2014 with an attack on French satarical magazine Charlie Hebdo and continued through Friday with attacks at a printing company and a Kosher supermarket. Three suspects were killed in seiges while a fourth, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Richard Bord/Getty Images)
PARIS, FRANCE - JANUARY 11: Demonstrators make their way from 'Place de la Republique' to 'Place de la Nation' in a unity rally in Paris led by French president Francois Hollande and other world leaders following the recent terrorist attacks, January 11, 2015 in Paris, France. An estimated one million people converged in central Paris for the Unity March in solidarity with the 17 victims of this week's terrorist attacks which began on Wednesday, January 8, 2014 with an attack on French satarical magazine Charlie Hebdo and continued through Friday with attacks at a printing company and a Kosher supermarket. Three suspects were killed in seiges while a fourth, Hayat Boumeddiene, 26, is wanted in connection with the murder of a policewoman. (Photo by Richard Bord/Getty Images)
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