Murder charges against Egypt's Mubarak dismissed

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Murder charges against Egypt's Mubarak dismissed
Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters run for cover from smoke-grenades fired by the police during clashes in Tahrir Square in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters chant slogans as they gather in Tahrir Square in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. Arabic writting on placard reads '30 years of corruption, where are our rights?' AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Hundreds of Egyptian people protest the court verdict, dropping charges against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak that he incited the killing of protesters in 2011, at Abdul Munim Riad Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. (Photo by Ahmed Taranh/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters chant slogans as they gather in Tahrir Square in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. Arabic writting on placard reads 'Down with military law' and 'Freedom for the detainees'. AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters chant slogans as they gather in Abdel Moneim Riad Square in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
An Egyptian anti-Mubarak protester kicks a smoke-grenade fired by the police during clashes in Tahrir Square in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters chant slogans as they gather in Abdel Moneim Riad Square in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
Egypt's former president Hosni Mubarak (R) and his son Gamal sit behind bars during a court hearing on November 29, 2014 in the capital Cairo. The court acquitted all seven security commanders charged with murder alongside ousted president Hosni Mubarak over the deaths of protesters during a 2011 uprising. AFP PHOTO / STR (Photo credit should read -/AFP/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters stage a demonstration after hearing the verdict of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. Charges against former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak for involvement in the 2011 deaths of demonstrators against his regime have been dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court. (Photo by Mohamed el Raii/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters stage a demonstration after hearing the verdict of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. Charges against former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak for involvement in the 2011 deaths of demonstrators against his regime have been dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court. (Photo by Mohamed el Raii/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters stage a demonstration after hearing the verdict of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. Charges against former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak for involvement in the 2011 deaths of demonstrators against his regime have been dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court. (Photo by Mohamed el Raii/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Hundreds of Egyptian people protest the court verdict, dropping charges against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak that he incited the killing of protesters in 2011, at Abdul Munim Riad Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. (Photo by Ahmed Taranh/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters chant slogans as they gather in Tahrir Square in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: An Egyptian anti-Mubarak protester holds a placard reading as 'Down with Junta' during a demonstration after hearing the verdict of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. Charges against former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak for involvement in the 2011 deaths of demonstrators against his regime have been dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court. (Photo by Mohamed el Raii/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
Abdel Moneim Riad, a main transportation hub for taxis and buses, appears vacant following clashes in Cairo on November 29, 2014. Egyptian police fired tear gas at more than 1,000 protesters in central Cairo who gathered to denounce a court's decision to drop a murder charge against ousted president Hosni Mubarak. AFP PHOTO / MOHAMED EL-SHAHED (Photo credit should read MOHAMED EL-SHAHED/AFP/Getty Images)
Egyptians show an anti-Mubarak slogan in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Jan. 29, 2011. Hundreds of anti-government protesters have returned to Cairo's central Tahrir Square, chanting slogans against Hosni Mubarak just hours after the Egyptian president fired his Cabinet but refused to step down. (AP Photo/Ahmed Ali)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak greets his supporters from the balcony of Maadi Military Hospital in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014 after an Egyptian court clears charges of conspiring in the killing of protesters during 2011 uprising. (Photo by Stringer/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
Egyptian anti-government protesters stand atop an Egyptian army tank during a protest in Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Jan. 29, 2011. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
Egyptian anti-government protesters pray in front of an Egyptian army tank during a protest in Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Jan. 29, 2011. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
An injured protester is helped into a mosque that was used as a make-shift triage clinic, during clashes with anti-riot police in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Jan. 29, 2011. Hundreds of anti-government protesters have returned to Cairo's central Tahrir Square, chanting slogans against Hosni Mubarak just hours after the Egyptian president fired his Cabinet but refused to step down. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
An anti-government protester holds a sign reading "Game Over" in Tahrir square in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Jan. 29, 2011. Thousands of anti-government protesters returned to Cairo's central Tahrir Square, chanting slogans against Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and demanding his departure. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
An Egyptian mother hugs her child as she watches some thousands of Egyptian protesters gather at Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, Jan. 30, 2011, with the ruling National Democratic party building burned at top right behind the red coloured Egypt museum. The army sent hundreds more troops and armored vehicles onto the streets of Cairo and other cities but appeared to be taking little action against mass protests on Sunday. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)
An anti-government protester being carried on the shoulders of another holds up a portrait of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak on which he had drawn a moustache and hair in black to represent Adolf Hitler, to loud cheers from the crowd, at the continuing demonstration in Tahrir square in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Monday, Jan. 31, 2011. A coalition of opposition groups called for a million people to take to Cairo's streets Tuesday to demand the removal of President Hosni Mubarak. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Egyptian anti-government protesters gather in Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Jan. 29, 2011. Thousands of anti-government protesters have returned to Cairo's central Tahrir Square, chanting slogans against Hosni Mubarak just hours after the Egyptian president fired his Cabinet but refused to step down. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
A man identified only as Fathi, wearing the uniform of a captain in the Egyptian army, is carried by demonstrators on Tahrir, or Liberation Square, in Cairo, Egypt, Monday Jan. 31, 2011. A coalition of opposition groups called for a million people to take to Cairo's streets Tuesday to demand the removal of President Hosni Mubarak, the clearest sign yet that a unified leadership was emerging for Egypt's powerful but disparate protest movement. In an apparent attempt to show change, Mubarak named a new government, but the lineup dominated by regime stalwards was greeted with scorn by protesters. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
A man identified only as Fathi, wearing the uniform of a captain in the Egyptian army, is carried by demonstrators on Tahrir, or Liberation Square, in Cairo, Egypt, Monday Jan. 31, 2011. A coalition of opposition groups called for a million people to take to Cairo's streets Tuesday to demand the removal of President Hosni Mubarak, the clearest sign yet that a unified leadership was emerging for Egypt's powerful but disparate protest movement. In an apparent attempt to show change, Mubarak named a new government, but the lineup dominated by regime stalwards was greeted with scorn by protesters. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Clerics from Al Azhar Islamic university, some holding their identity cards, chant anti-government slogans during a protest in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Monday Jan. 31, 2011. A coalition of opposition groups called for a million people to take to Cairo's streets Tuesday to ratchet up pressure for President Hosni Mubarak to leave. (AP Photo/Manoocher Deghati)
Egyptian anti-government protesters take photos of one of the many and colorful placards with their camera phones at the continuing demonstration in Tahrir square in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Monday, Jan. 31, 2011. A coalition of opposition groups called for a million people to take to Cairo's streets Tuesday to demand the removal of President Hosni Mubarak. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Clergies from Al Azhar Islamic university, one showing his identity card, chant anti-government slogans during a protest in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square, in Cairo, Egypt, Monday Jan. 31, 2011. A coalition of opposition groups called for a million people to take to Cairo's streets Tuesday to ratchet up pressure for President Hosni Mubarak to leave. (AP Photo/Manoocher Deghati)
A man waves his national flag during a protest in the capital's central Tahrir, or Liberation, Square, Cairo, Egypt, Monday Jan. 31, 2011. A coalition of opposition groups called for a million people to take to Cairo's streets Tuesday to ratchet up pressure for President Hosni Mubarak to leave. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)
The crowd gathers in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. Tens of thousands of people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square as a call for a million protesters was answered by the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
A woman who fainted during a demonstration is carried away from Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. Tens of thousands of people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square as a call for a million protesters was answered by the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
The crowd gathers in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. Tens of thousands of people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square as a call for a million protesters was answered by the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
The crowd gathers in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. Tens of thousands of people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square as a call for a million protesters was answered by the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Clerics from Al Azhar Islamic university, lined up at center, address the crowd in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. Tens of thousands of people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square as a call for a million protesters was answered by the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Victoria Hazou)
A soldiers directs demonstrators arriving at Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Ahmed Ali)
A demonstrator reacts in Tahrir or Liberation Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Demonstrators hold banners in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
A demonstrator holds posters in Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Victoria Hazou)
Anti-government protesters pray, as others demonstrate in Tahrir, or Liberation Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
An anti-government protester wears facepaint in the colors of the Egyptian flag during the continuing demonstration in Tahrir square in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Demonstrators try to cross through a barrier controlled by soldiers guarding the access to Tahrir, or Liberation, Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
Anti-government protesters pray, as others demonstrate in Tahrir, or Liberation Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
A large pro-government demonstration, front, arrives at Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
An anti-government protester displays spent shotgun cartridges in Tahrir, or Liberation Square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 1, 2011. More than a quarter-million people flooded into the heart of Cairo Tuesday, filling the city's main square in by far the largest demonstration in a week of unceasing demands for President Hosni Mubarak to leave after nearly 30 years in power. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Pro-government demonstrators, below, and anti-government demonstrators, above, clash in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Pro-government demonstrators, below, and anti-government demonstrators, above, clash in Tahrir Square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Pro and anti-Mubarak supporters clash in Tahrir Square, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb.2, 2011. Several thousand supporters of President Hosni Mubarak, including some riding horses and camels and wielding whips, clashed with anti-government protesters as Egypt's upheaval took a dangerous new turn. In chaotic scenes, the two sides pelted each other with stones, and protesters dragged riders off their horses. (AP Photo/Ahmed Ali)
A medic attempts to treat an injured anti-government protester during clashes in Tahrir, or Liberation square, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. Several thousand supporters of President Hosni Mubarak clashed with anti-government protesters as Egypt's upheaval took a dangerous new turn. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
An injured anti-government protester gestures as he is treated by medics during clashes in Tahrir, or Liberation square, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. Several thousand supporters of President Hosni Mubarak, including some riding horses and camels and wielding whips, clashed with anti-government protesters Wednesday as Egypt's upheaval took a dangerous new turn. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Supporters of President Hosni Mubarak, clash with anti-Mubarak protesters in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb.2, 2011. Several thousand supporters of President Hosni Mubarak, including some riding horses and camels and wielding whips, clashed with anti-government protesters, as Egypt's upheaval took a dangerous new turn. In chaotic scenes, the two sides pelted each other with stones, and protesters dragged riders off their horses. (AP Photo/Ahmed Ali)
An injured anti-government protester is carried away from clashes in Tahrir, or Liberation square, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. Several thousand supporters of President Hosni Mubarak, including some riding horses and camels and wielding whips, clashed with anti-government protesters Wednesday as Egypt's upheaval took a dangerous new turn. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Pro-government demonstrators, below, clash with anti-government demonstrators, above, as an Egyptian Army soldier on the rooftop of the Egyptian Museum observes the scene in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Those at the frontline of the anti-government demonstrators, above right, lead a charge against a crowd of pro-government demonstrators, below, in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Injured anti-government protesters lie on the ground near army vehicles as they wait to be treated by medics during clashes in Tahrir, or Liberation square, in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. Several thousand supporters of President Hosni Mubarak, including some riding horses and camels and wielding whips, clashed with anti-government protesters Wednesday as Egypt's upheaval took a dangerous new turn. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Pro-government demonstrators, bottom, watch as cars burn during clashes with anti-government demonstrators, top, behind barriers, in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, early Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. Thousands of supporters and opponents of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak battled in Cairo's main square all day Wednesday, raining stones, bottles and firebombs on each other in scenes of uncontrolled violence as soldiers stood by without intervening. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
Smoke rises from cars in flames during clashes between pro-government and anti-government demonstrators, in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, early Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. Thousands of supporters and opponents of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak battled in Cairo's main square all day Wednesday, raining stones, bottles and firebombs on each other in scenes of uncontrolled violence as soldiers stood by without intervening. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
Pro-government demonstrators take to the rooftops to throw rocks down at anti-government demonstrators below, unseen, opposite the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt Wednesday, Feb. 2, 2011. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
The situation appears calm after a night of violence, as anti-government demonstrators gather in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. Thousands of supporters and opponents of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak battled in Cairo's main square all day Wednesday, raining stones, bottles and firebombs on each other in scenes of uncontrolled violence as soldiers stood by without intervening. Government backers galloped in on horses and camels, only to be dragged to the ground and beaten bloody. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
Smoke rises from cars in flames during clashes between pro-government and anti-government demonstrators, in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, early Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. Thousands of supporters and opponents of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak battled in Cairo's main square all day Wednesday, raining stones, bottles and firebombs on each other in scenes of uncontrolled violence as soldiers stood by without intervening. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
Anti-government demonstrators grab a man they suspect to be a supporter of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Cairo's Tahrir Square, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. The Egyptian military is taking up positions between anti-government demonstrators and supporters of President Hosni Mubarak. Hours after automatic gunfire hit the protest camp at Tahrir Square, soldiers carrying rifles could be seen lining up between the two sides late Thursday morning. Several hundred other soldiers were moving toward the front line. (AP Photo/Victoria Hazou)
Anti-government demonstrators grab a man, center, they suspect to be a supporter of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Cairo's Tahrir Square, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. The Egyptian military is taking up positions between anti-government demonstrators and supporters of President Hosni Mubarak. Soldiers did not intervene, other than firing warning shots, during attacks on the anti-government protesters Wednesday by Mubarak supporters. (AP Photo/Victoria Hazou)
Egyptian army armored personnel carriers block the road to block pro-government protesters, not seen , from approaching anti-government demonstrators in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, Thursday Feb. 3, 2011. Thousands of supporters and opponents of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak battled in Cairo's main square all day Wednesday, raining stones, bottles and firebombs on each other in scenes of uncontrolled violence as soldiers stood by without intervening. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
A Egyptian pro-government protester is prevented throwing stones by soldiers in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up again and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters. The two sides are trading volleys of stone-throwing, but government backers are falling back and protesters are swarming onto a highway overpass from which their rivals had pelted them with stones and firebombs overnight. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Egyptian Army soldiers patrol through anti- government protesters in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up again and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters. The two sides are trading volleys of stone-throwing, but government backers are falling back and protesters are swarming onto a highway overpass from which their rivals had pelted them with stones and firebombs overnight. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Egyptian anti government protesters throw stones during clashes in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up again and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Egyptian anti government protesters throw stones during clashes in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up again and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters.The two sides are trading volleys of stone-throwing, but government backers are falling back and protesters are swarming onto a highway overpass from which their rivals had pelted them with stones and firebombs overnight. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Egyptian pro government protesters are prevented from throwing stones by army soldiers in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up again and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters. The two sides are trading volleys of stone-throwing, but government backers are falling back and protesters are swarming onto a highway overpass from which their rivals had pelted them with stones and firebombs overnight. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Egyptian anti government protesters throw stones during clashes in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up again and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Anti-government demonstrators gather in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Sebastian Scheiner)
A wounded anti-government protestor reacts as he is being treated in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
Egyptian anti government protesters throw stones during clashes in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up again and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters.The two sides are trading volleys of stone-throwing, but government backers are falling back and protesters are swarming onto a highway overpass from which their rivals had pelted them with stones and firebombs overnight. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
An anti-government protester, right, attempts to protect an injured suspected pro-government supporter, center, from other protesters near Tahrir, or Liberation square in Cairo, Egypt, Thursday, Feb. 3, 2011. New clashes are heating up and shots are being fired in the air around Cairo's central Tahrir Square as anti-government protesters push back regime supporters.(AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
A soldiers stands by anti-government protestors lining up to enter Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Emilion Morenatti)
Anti-government demonstrators gather in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Sebastian Scheiner)
Anti-government demonstrators rest in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Sebastian Scheiner)
Anti-government demonstrators gather in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Sebastian Scheiner)
Soldiers stand by anti-government protestors lining up to enter Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Emilion Morenatti)
Egyptian protesters wave Egyptian flags during an anti-Mubarak protest in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
People gather in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
People pray in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Anti-government protestors rise their hands in the victory sign in Cairo's Tahrir Square, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
People pray in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Egyptian protesters perform Friday prayers during a protest in Tahrir or Liberation Square in Cairo, Egypt Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. Protesters demanding President Hosni Mubarak's ouster packed Cairo's central square by the tens of thousands Friday, waving Egyptian flags, singing the national anthem and cheering, appearing undaunted and determined after their camp withstood two days of street battles with regime supporters trying to dislodge them. (AP Photo/Ahmed Ali)
An anti-government protestors flashes the V sign inside a damaged Army truck in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
An anti-government protestors holding an Egyptian flag sits atop a lamppost as a helicopter flies past in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
An anti-government protester, wounded by stones hurled by pro-government protesters, is carried by a colleague, near Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. Tens of thousands packed central Cairo Friday, waving flags and singing the national anthem, emboldened in their campaign to oust President Hosni Mubarak after they repelled pro-regime attackers in two days of bloody street fights. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
An anti-government protestor prays on a road close to Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Friday, Feb. 4, 2011. The Egyptian military guarded thousands of protesters pouring into Cairo's main square on Friday in an attempt to drive out President Hosni Mubarak after a week and half of pro-democracy demonstrations. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
An anti-government protester is taken care of by Gen. Hassan El-Rueini, left, outside Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, Feb. 5, 2011. Leaders of Egypt's unprecedented wave of anti-government protests have held talks with the prime minister over ways to ease President Hosni Mubarak out of office, but the government appeared Saturday to be digging in its heels, calculating that it can ride out street demonstrations. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra)
Egyptian Army tanks preparing to clear opposition barricades engage in a tense standoff with anti-government protesters, left, who were vowing to lie in the path of the tanks, as pro-government supporters shout from a bridge, above right, next to the Egyptian Museum at an entrance to Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt Saturday, Feb. 5, 2011. Egyptian State TV says the top leadership body of Egypt's ruling party, including the president's son Gamal Mubarak and the party secretary-general Safwat el-Sharif, resigned Saturday in a new gesture apparently aimed at convincing anti-government protesters that the regime is serious about reform.(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Egyptian anti-government demonstrators sit in a burned police vehicle destroyed during last week's clashes with the police, in Tahrir Square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, Feb. 6, 2011. A sense of normalcy began to return to the capital of some 18 million people, which has been largely closed since chaos erupted shortly after the protests began on Jan. 25. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis)
Anti-government protesters sit down in front of Egyptian Army tanks to prevent them from moving at the protest site opposite the Egyptian Museum near Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Sunday, Feb. 6, 2011. Egypt's vice president met a broad representation of major opposition groups for the first time Sunday and agreed to allow freedom of the press and to release those detained since anti-government protests began, though Al-Jazeera's English-language news network said one of its correspondents had been detained the same day by the Egyptian military. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
An anti-government protester lies on top of a burnt out car near Tahrir Square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, Feb. 6, 2011. A sense of normalcy began to return to the capital of some 18 million people, which has been largely closed since chaos erupted shortly after the protests began on Jan. 25. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Anti-government protesters sit and lie inside the tracks of an Egyptian Army tank, both to prevent them from moving and to shield themselves from the rain, at the protest site opposite the Egyptian Museum near Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Sunday, Feb. 6, 2011. Egypt's vice president met a broad representation of major opposition groups for the first time Sunday and agreed to allow freedom of the press and to release those detained since anti-government protests began, though Al-Jazeera's English-language news network said one of its correspondents had been detained the same day by the Egyptian military. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Anti-government protesters rest in front of an army barricade near Tahrir Square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, Feb. 6, 2011. Egypt's vice president met a broad representation of major opposition groups for the first time Sunday and agreed to allow freedom of the press and to release those detained since anti-government protests began, though Al-Jazeera's English-language news network said one of its correspondents had been detained the same day by the Egyptian military. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Anti-government protesters walk under an effigy hanging from a noose representing Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, at the continuing protest in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt, Monday, Feb. 7, 2011. Egypt's embattled regime announced Monday a 15 percent raise for government employees in an attempt to shore up its base and defuse popular anger but the gestures so far have done little to persuade the tens of thousands of protesters occupying Tahrir Square to end their two-week long protest, leaving the two sides in an uneasy stalemate. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Thousands of Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters shout slogans as they take part in a demonstration at Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 8, 2011. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
Thousands of Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters shout slogans as they take part in a demonstration in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt, Tuesday, Feb. 8, 2011. Protesters appear to have settled in for a long standoff, turning Tahrir Square into a makeshift village with tens of thousands coming every day, with some sleeping in tents made of blankets and plastic sheeting. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters are seen next to Army tanks and armored vehicles near Tahrir square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb. 9, 2011. Protesters appear to have settled in for a long standoff, turning Tahrir Square into a makeshift village with tens of thousands coming every day, with some sleeping in tents made of blankets and plastic sheeting. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
An anti-government protester wears facepaint in the color of the Egyptian flag and body paint in arabic directed at Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and reading "The paper ran out. What more can I do for you (to get it)?" at the continuing protest in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Monday, Feb. 7, 2011. Egypt's embattled regime announced Monday a 15 percent raise for government employees in an attempt to shore up its base and defuse popular anger but the gestures so far have done little to persuade the tens of thousands of protesters occupying Tahrir Square to end their two-week long protest, leaving the two sides in an uneasy stalemate. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
Anti-government protestors hold Egyptian flags during a demonstration at Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, Wednesday, Feb. 9, 2011. Protesters appear to have settled in for a long standoff, turning Tahrir Square into a makeshift village with tens of thousands coming every day, with some sleeping in tents made of blankets and plastic sheeting. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
Anti-government protesters react as Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak makes a televised statement to his nation in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Thursday, Feb. 10, 2011. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak announced he is handing his powers over to his vice president, Omar Suleiman, and ordered constitutional amendments Thursday. But the move means he retains his title of president and ensures regime control over the reform process, falling short of protester demands. Protesters in Cairo's central Tahrir Square, hoping he would announce his resignation outright, reacted in fury and disbelief. (AP Photo/Emilio Morenatti)
Anti-government protesters celebrate in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Thursday, Feb. 10, 2011. Egypt's military announced on national television it had stepped in to secure the country and promised protesters calling for President Hosni Mubarak's ouster that all their demands would soon be met. Tens of thousands of protesters packed in central Tahrir broke into chants of 'We're almost there, we're almost there' and waved V-for-victory signs as thousands more flowed in to join them well after nightfall. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)
Anti-government protesters react to Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's televised statement to his nation in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Thursday, Feb. 10, 2011. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak announced he is handing his powers over to his vice president, Omar Suleiman, and ordered constitutional amendments Thursday. But the move means he retains his title of president and ensures regime control over the reform process, falling short of protester demands. Protesters in Cairo's central Tahrir Square, hoping he would announce his resignation outright, reacted in fury and disbelief. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Anti-government protesters react to Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak's televised statement to his nation in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Thursday, Feb. 10, 2011. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak announced he is handing his powers over to his vice president, Omar Suleiman, and ordered constitutional amendments Thursday. But the move means he retains his title of president and ensures regime control over the reform process, falling short of protester demands. Protesters in Cairo's central Tahrir Square, hoping he would announce his resignation outright, reacted in fury and disbelief. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Anti-government protesters, and Egyptian soldiers on top of their vehicles, make traditional Muslim Friday prayers at the continuing demonstration in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Friday, Feb. 11, 2011. (AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
An anti-government protester holds up his shoe as people react as Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak makes a televised statement to his nation in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Thursday, Feb. 10, 2011. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak announced he is handing his powers over to his vice president, Omar Suleiman, and ordered constitutional amendments Thursday. But the move means he retains his title of president and ensures regime control over the reform process, falling short of protester demands. Protesters in Cairo's central Tahrir Square, hoping he would announce his resignation outright, reacted in fury and disbelief. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
Anti-government protesters make traditional Muslim Friday prayers at the continuing demonstration in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo, Egypt Friday, Feb. 11, 2011. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill)
FILE - In this Feb. 3, 2011 file photo, pro-government demonstrators, bottom, watch as cars burn during clashes with anti-government demonstrators, top, behind barriers, in Tahrir square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt. (AP Photo/Lefteris Pitarakis, File)
Egyptian army soldiers inside Tahrir Square, Egypt, Saturday, Feb. 12, 2011. The main coalition of youth and opposition groups says it will end its protest in a central Cairo square after they succeeded in ousting longtime authoritarian leader Hosni Mubarak. But the groups say they will call for weekly demonstrations to maintain pressure on the ruling military to implement democratic reforms. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)
FILE - In this Feb. 6, 2011 file photo, an injured anti-government protester sits near Tahrir Square, the center of anti-government demonstrations, in Cairo, Egypt. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whitehill, File)
Remaining protesters argue with an Egyptian army soldier trying to lead them away from Tahrir Square, as the military attempts to enable the resumption of normal life in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday morning, Feb. 13, 2011. Protesters were debating whether to lift their 24-hour-a-day demonstration camp in Tahir. (AP Photo/Manoocher Deghati)
Egyptian army soldiers arrive at Tahrir Square to lead the protesters away from there in Cairo, Egypt Sunday morning, Feb. 13, 2011. Egypt's military has started taking down the makeshift tents of protesters who camped out on the square in an effort to allow traffic and normal life to return to central Cairo. (AP Photo/Hussein Malla)
Protesters carrying an Egyptian flag demonstrate as cars try to make their way through Tahrir Square, in Cairo, Egypt, Sunday, Feb. 13, 2011. Egypt's military is taking down the makeshift tents of protesters who camped out on Tahrir Square in an effort to allow traffic and normal life to return to central Cairo. There were a few verbal altercations between soldiers and protesters Sunday morning as the tents were removed, but the process was generally peaceful. (AP Photo/Ahmed Ali)
Thousands of Egyptians gather at Tahrir Square, the focal point of Egyptian uprising, during a protest against Israel's closure of Gaza in Cairo, Egypt Friday, May 13, 2011. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)
Egyptians gather around a Palestinian flag during a protest against Israel's closure of Gaza at Tahrir Square, the focal point of Egyptian uprising, in Cairo, Egypt, Friday, May 13, 2011. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Hundreds of Egyptian people protest the court verdict, dropping charges against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak that he incited the killing of protesters in 2011, at Abdul Munim Riad Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. (Photo by Ahmed Taranh/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters stage a demonstration after hearing the verdict of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at Abdel Munim Riyad square in Cairo, Egypt on 29 November 2014. Charges against former Egyptian strongman Hosni Mubarak for involvement in the 2011 deaths of demonstrators against his regime have been dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court. (Photo by Mohamed Osam/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Egyptian anti-Mubarak protesters stage a demonstration after hearing the verdict of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak at Abdel Munim Riyad square in Cairo, Egypt on 29 November 2014. Charges against former Egyptian strongman Hosni Mubarak for involvement in the 2011 deaths of demonstrators against his regime have been dismissed by the Cairo Criminal Court. (Photo by Mohamed Osam/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Hundreds of Egyptian people protest the court verdict, dropping charges against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak that he incited the killing of protesters in 2011, at Abdul Munim Riad Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. (Photo by Ahmed Taranh/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Hundreds of Egyptian people protest the court verdict, dropping charges against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak that he incited the killing of protesters in 2011, at Abdul Munim Riad Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. (Photo by Ahmed Taranh/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: Hundreds of Egyptian people protest the court verdict, dropping charges against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak that he incited the killing of protesters in 2011, at Abdul Munim Riad Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. (Photo by Ahmed Taranh/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
CAIRO, EGYPT - NOVEMBER 29: An Egyptian kid holds a placard reading as 'Down With! Down With! Hosni Mubarek' during a protest the court verdict, dropping charges against former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak that he incited the killing of protesters in 2011, at Abdul Munim Riad Square in Cairo, Egypt on November 29, 2014. (Photo by Ahmed Taranh/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)
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CAIRO (AP) - A judge dismissed murder charges Saturday against former President Hosni Mubarak and acquitted his security chief over the killing of protesters during Egypt's 2011 uprising, crushing any hope of a judicial reckoning on behalf of the hundreds victims of the revolt that toppled him.

Yet instead of outrage, a largely muted initial reaction greeted the decision in an Egypt where unlicensed protests draw stiff prison terms and many remain fearful over their security four years after the nation's Arab Spring revolt.

Some 2,000 young people protested the verdict near Cairo's Tahrir Square, the birthplace of the 2011 uprising closed off Saturday by soldiers and police, though open a day earlier despite widespread fears of violent Islamist protests. They chanted against the military, whose former chief, Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi, is now the president.

"The people want to bring down the regime!" they shouted, using one of the chief slogans in the 18-day, anti-Mubarak uprising.

In the evening, police broke up the gathering, firing water cannon and tear gas and driving protesters into side streets after supporters of the banned Muslim Brotherhood joined the protest. An Interior Ministry statement said that Brotherhood supporters pelted security forces with rocks and fought with the protesters.

Security officials, speaking on condition of anonymity because they weren't authorized to brief reporters, said police arrested 29 people.

The dispersal contrasted with the jubilant well-wishers who greeted Mubarak after the decision when he returned to his temporary home at a Nile-side military hospital. He later triumphantly waved back to supporters from his hospital window.

Charges Dropped Against Mubarak Over 2011 Protests Deaths

A television interviewer reached him by telephone, asking whether he had ordered the killing.

"I did not do anything at all," replied Mubarak, who was convicted and sentenced to life in prison in 2012 on charges related to the killing of protesters. The verdict was overturned on appeal the following year.

The monarch of close U.S. ally Bahrain, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, also called to congratulate Mubarak, according to the official news agency of the Gulf Arab island nation.

Mubarak, who assumed Egypt's highest office in 1981 following the assassination of Anwar Sadat, has spent virtually all the time since he was detained in April 2011 in hospitals due to poor health. On Saturday, he came to the courtroom on a gurney, wearing dark glasses, a navy blue tie and a matching cardigan.

In his ruling, judge Mahmoud al-Rashidi cited the "inadmissibility" of the case against Mubarak due to a technicality. He said Mubarak's May 2011 referral to trial by prosecutors ignored the "implicit" decision that no criminal charges be filed against him when his security chief and six of his top aides were referred to trial by the same prosecutors two months earlier.

After the decision, Cairo resident Nermine Fathy simply asked: "Who killed the martyrs? I want to know who killed the martyrs."

That question likely won't be answered in Egypt's courts. Already, nearly 170 police officers and security officials put on trial in connection to the killings have either been acquitted for lack of evidence or were found to have acted in self-defense. Some received short, suspended sentences.

The Mubarak trial, however, was concerned only with the killing of 239 protesters whose names were cited in charge documents, not the nearly 900 killed in total during the 18 days of the revolt.

Saturday's ruling marks another major setback for the young activists who led the 2011 Egyptian uprising, many of whom are now in prison or have withdrawn from politics. It likely will reinforce the perception that Mubarak's autocratic state remains in place, albeit led by el-Sissi, the former military chief who later led the overthrow of Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in 2013.

It concludes Mubarak's retrial along with his two sons, his security chief Habib el-Adly and six top security commanders, who were all acquitted. Also acquitted was wealthy businessman Hussein Salem, a longtime Mubarak friend tried in absentia.

Hossam Bahgat, a prominent human rights advocate, said Saturday's verdict would be used by the government to signal the end of the upheavals associated with the 2011 revolt.

"The regime's message: It's time to look forward, time to move on, time to focus on building the nation. But I doubt this will work. It will deepen the grievance and feeling of injustice felt by many young people," he said by telephone from New York.

Mubarak was also acquitted of corruption charges that he faced along with his sons Alaa and Gamal - his one-time heir apparent - over the statute of limitations in the case running out. The case involves their purchase from Salem of luxury villas in a Red Sea resort at a vastly discounted price, something that the prosecution had said amounted to bribery. The two sons face a separate trial on charges of insider trading.

All the rulings can be appealed.

It was not immediately clear whether Mubarak would now walk free since he is serving a three-year jail term for separate corruption charges he was convicted of in May. He has been in detention since April 2011, but it is unclear if the past 3 1/2 years will be treated as time served.

Al-Rashidi, the judge, said the dismissal of the charges did not absolve Mubarak of the corruption and "feebleness" of the latter years of his 29-year rule. The judge praised the 2011 uprising, saying that its goals - freedom, bread and social justice - were legitimate.

He also said Mubarak, like any other human, erred at times and suggested that his old age should have spared him a criminal trial.

"To rule for or against him after he has become old will be left to history and the Judge of Judges, ... (God), who will question him about his rule," the judge said.

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