NASA's Maven explorer arriving at Mars after year

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NASA's Maven explorer arriving at Mars after year
In this artist concept provided by NASA, the MAVEN spacecraft approaches Mars on a mission to study its upper atmosphere. When it arrives on Sunday Sept. 21, 2014, MAVEN's 442 million mile journey from Earth will culminate with a dramatic engine burn, pulling the spacecraft into an elliptical orbit. It's designed to circle the planet, not land. (AP Photo/NASA)
NASA's Maven, atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket, lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft will orbit Mars and study the planet's upper atmosphere. (AP Photo/John Raoux)
NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft with solar panels extended September 27, 2013 is checked by technicians in preparation for a November 18 launch to Mars at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. It is scheduled to go into orbit around Mars on September 22, 2014 and begin taking data on the upper atmosphere, solar winds and magnetic fields that will be transmitted back to Earth. AFP PHOTO/Bruce Weaver (Photo credit should read BRUCE WEAVER/AFP/Getty Images)
FILE - In this Nov. 18, 2013 file photo, NASA's Maven, short for Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, with a capital "N'' in EvolutioN, atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket, lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA’s Maven spacecraft will reach the red planet in September 2014 following a 10-month journey spanning more than 440 million miles. If all goes well, Maven will hit the brakes and slip into Martian orbit Sunday, Sept. 21, 2014. (AP Photo/John Raoux, File)
In this photo provided by NASA, the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Maven spacecraft launches from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA’s Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. (AP Photo/NASA, Bill Ingalls)
In this photo provided by NASA, the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Maven spacecraft launches from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA’s Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. (AP Photo/NASA, Bill Ingalls)
This photo provided by NASA shows the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft launching from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, Cape Canaveral, Florida. NASA’s Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, or MAVEN, is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. (AP Photo/NASA, Bill Ingalls)
FILE - In this Friday, Sept. 27, 2013 file photo, technicians work on NASA’s next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN), at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA’s Maven spacecraft will reach the red planet in September 2014 following a 10-month journey spanning more than 440 million miles. If all goes well, Maven will hit the brakes and slip into Martian orbit Sunday, Sept. 21, 2014. (AP Photo/John Raoux, File)
NASA's Maven, atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket, lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft will orbit Mars and study the planet's upper atmosphere. (AP Photo/John Raoux)
NASA's newest robotic explorer, Maven, atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket, lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft will orbit Mars and study the planet's upper atmosphere.(AP Photo/John Raoux)
NASA's Maven, short for Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, with a capital "N'' in EvolutioN, atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket, lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft will orbit Mars and study the planet's upper atmosphere. (AP Photo/John Raoux)
This photo provided by NASA shows a full moon rising behind the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft onboard at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Sunday, Nov. 17, 2013, Cape Canaveral, Florida. NASA’s next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or MAVEN, is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. (AP Photo/NASA, Bill Ingalls)
NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft with solar panels extended September 27, 2013 is checked by technicians in preparation for a November 18 launch to Mars at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. It is scheduled to go into orbit around Mars on September 22, 2014 and begin taking data on the upper atmosphere, solar winds and magnetic fields that will be transmitted back to Earth. AFP PHOTO/Bruce Weaver (Photo credit should read BRUCE WEAVER/AFP/Getty Images)
NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft with solar panels extended September 27, 2013 is checked by technicians in preparation for a November 18 launch to Mars at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. It is scheduled to go into orbit around Mars on September 22, 2014 and begin taking data on the upper atmosphere, solar winds and magnetic fields that will be transmitted back to Earth. AFP PHOTO/Bruce Weaver (Photo credit should read BRUCE WEAVER/AFP/Getty Images)
CAPE CANAVERAL, FL - NOVEMBER 16: In this handout photo provided by NASA, the United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft as payload rolls out of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41 Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad November 16, 2013 in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The space agency's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN for short) is on a mission to study the upper atmosphere of Mars in hopes to discover how the planet lost most of its atmosphere and liquid water. (Photo by Bill Ingalls/NASA via Getty Images)
LITTLETON, CO - JULY 15: Lockheed Martin engineer Jack Farmerie is preparing to remove the primary high gain antennae from the MAVEN spacecraft for transport. The NASA MAVEN Mars spacecraft is spending its final days at Lockheed Martin labs before it is packed and shipped to Florida in early August. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, scheduled for launch in November 2013, will be the first mission devoted to understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. The goal of MAVEN is to determine the role that loss of atmospheric gas to space played in changing the Martian climate through time. MAVEN's principal investigator is based at the University of Colorado Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. The university will provide science operations, science instruments and lead Education/Public Outreach. Lockheed Martin built the spacecraft and is responsible for mission operations. United Launch Alliance, in Centennial, Colo. is providing the Atlas V launch vehicle. (Photo By Kathryn Scott Osler/The Denver Post via Getty Images)
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By MARCIA DUNNCAPE

CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) -- NASA's Maven spacecraft entered orbit around Mars for an unprecedented study of the red planet's atmosphere following a 442 million-mile journey that began nearly a year ago.

The robotic explorer successfully slipped into orbit around the red planet late Sunday night.

"I think my heart's about ready to start again," Maven's chief investigator, Bruce Jakosky of the University of Colorado, said early Monday. "All I can say at this point is, 'We're in orbit at Mars, guys!'"

Now the real work begins for the $671 million mission, the first dedicated to studying the Martian upper atmosphere and the latest step in NASA's bid to send astronauts to Mars in the 2030s.

Flight controllers in Colorado will spend the next six weeks adjusting Maven's altitude and checking its science instruments, and observing a comet streaking by at relatively close range. Then in early November, Maven will start probing the upper atmosphere of Mars. The spacecraft will conduct its observations from orbit; it's not meant to land.

Scientists believe the Martian atmosphere holds clues as to how Earth's neighbor went from being warm and wet billions of years ago to cold and dry. That early wet world may have harbored microbial life, a tantalizing question yet to be answered.

NASA launched Maven last November from Cape Canaveral, the 10th U.S. mission sent to orbit the red planet. Three earlier ones failed, and until the official word came of success late Sunday night, the entire team was on edge.

NASA's Maven Spacecraft Arrives in Mars Orbit

"I don't have any fingernails any more, but we've made it," said Colleen Hartman, deputy director for science at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "It's incredible."

The spacecraft was clocking more than 10,000 mph when it hit the brakes for the so-called orbital insertion, a half-hour process. The world had to wait 12 minutes to learn the outcome, once it occurred, because of the lag in spacecraft signals given the 138 million miles between the two planets Sunday.

"Wow, what a night. You get one shot with Mars orbit insertion, and Maven nailed it tonight," said NASA project manager David Mitchell.

Maven joins three spacecraft already circling Mars, two American and one European. And the traffic jam isn't over: India's first interplanetary probe, Mangalyaan, will reach Mars in two days and also aim for orbit. Jakosky wished the team well.

Jakosky, who's with the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder, hopes to learn where all the water on Mars went, along with the carbon dioxide that once comprised an atmosphere thick enough to hold moist clouds.

The gases may have been stripped away by the sun early in Mars' existence, escaping into the upper atmosphere and out into space. Maven's observations should be able to extrapolate back in time, Jakosky said.

Maven - short for Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission - will spend at least a year collecting data. That's a full Earth year, half a Martian one. Its orbit will dip as low as 78 miles above the Martian surface as its eight instruments make measurements. The craft is as long as a school bus, from solar wingtip to tip, and as hefty as an SUV.

Maven will have a rare brush with a comet next month.

The nucleus of newly discovered Comet Siding Spring will pass 82,000 miles from Mars on Oct. 19. The risk of comet dust damaging Maven is low, officials said, and the spacecraft should be able to observe Siding Spring as a science bonus.

Lockheed Martin Corp., Maven's maker, is operating the mission from its control center at Littleton, Colorado.

This is NASA's 21st shot at Mars and the first since the Curiosity rover landed on the red planet in 2012. Just this month, Curiosity arrived at its prime science target, a mountain named Sharp, ripe for drilling. The Opportunity rover is also still active a decade after landing.

More landers will be on the way in 2016 and 2018 from NASA and the European and Russian space agencies. The next U.S. rover is scheduled for launch in 2020; more capable than Curiosity, it will collect samples for possible return to Earth, and attempt to produce oxygen from atmospheric carbon dioxide. That latter experiment, if successful, would allow future human explorers to live off the land, according to NASA's John Grunsfeld, head of science missions and a former astronaut.

"This really is a quest of humanity," he said.

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