Study: Want lower gas prices? Ship more oil abroad
Heavy traffic clogs the 101 Freeway as people leave work for the Labor Day holiday in Los Angeles on August 29, 2014. A Labor Day travel prediction by the American Auto Association (AAA) expects that 34.7 million Americans will journey 50 miles or more from home during the Labor Day holiday weekend, mainly due to lower gas prices and a rebounding economy. (Photo by Mark Ralston, AFP/Getty Images)
People walk past a BP gas station, one of the few remaining gas stations left in lower Manhattan, which is scheduled to close next year on July 15, 2014 in New York City. In 2004 Manhattan had over 60 gas stations, there are only 39 now and the number continues to fall. With prices for apartments in Manhattan at an all time high, developers prefer gas stations as investments, due to their location on busy corners and the relative ease in tearing them down. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
MILL VALLEY, CA - JULY 03: A customer washes his windows as he gets gas at a Chevron gas station on July 3, 2014 in Mill Valley, California. As the conflict in Iraq coninutes to escalate, gas prices are being pushed up to the highest level since 2008. The average price in June for a gallon of regular gas was $3.67. (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
PORTLAND, ME - JULY 3: Gas station signs at the corner of Washington Avenue and Cumberland Avenue in Portland on July 3, 2014. (Tim Greenway/Portland Press Herald via Getty Images)
Customer Shelly Grabill fuels her vehicle at a Road Ranger gas station in Princeton, Illinois, U.S., on Tuesday, June 17, 2014. Gasoline in the U.S. climbed this week, boosted by a surge in oil, and is expected to reach the highest level for this time of year since 2008. Photographer: Daniel Acker/Bloomberg via Getty Images
CHICAGO, IL - MAY 22: Customers purchase gasoline at a Marathon gas station on May 22, 2014 in Chicago, Illinois. Marathon Petroleum Corp. has agreed to purchase Hess gasoline stations for $2.6 billion. The acquisition will expand Marathon Petroleums retail presence from nine to 23 states. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)
Samir Cook fills up his vehicle at a city-run station on Saturday, July 19, 2014, in Somerset, Ky. The station on the outskirts of Somerset opened to the public on Saturday, selling regular unleaded gas for $3.36 a gallon. In the first three hours, about 75 customers fueled up at the no-frills city station, where there are no snacks, no repairs and only regular unleaded gas. The cityâs mayor says he hopes the no-frills station will lower gas prices around town. (AP Photo/Bruce Schreiner)
An Egyptian rides his bicycle past a gasoline station in Cairo, Egypt, Saturday, July 5, 2014. Egypt's government raised the prices of fuel by up to 78 percent starting Saturday, following on a promise to cut subsidies that eat up nearly a quarter of the state budget, the official news agency reported. The country's successive leaders have balked at reducing them because half of the country's 85 million people live at or below the poverty line of $2 a day and rely on government subsidies of wheat and fuel for survival. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)
Traffic moves past a Doral, Fla. gas station, Wednesday, May 21, 2014. If the price of gasoline looks familiar this Memorial Day thatâs because it is. For the third year in a row, the national average will be within a few pennies of $3.64 per gallon. (AP Photo/J Pat Carter)
In this Wednesday, June 4, 2014 photo, Marty Mascio of Pembroke Pines, Fla., selects a grade of gasoline as he fills up his car at a Chevron station in Pembroke Pines. Violence in Iraq is pushing U.S. gasoline prices higher during a time of year they usually decline. The national average price of $3.67 per gallon is the highest price for this time of year since 2008, the year gasoline hit its all-time high. (AP Photo/Wilfredo Lee)
A sign at a BP filling station says regular gas is $2.99, 9/10ths per gallon in Lakewood, N.J., Tuesday, Nov. 12, 2013. Prices for regular gas at several gas stations in the area have dropped below $3.00-a-gallon. (AP Photo/Mel Evans)
The pump shows the purchase of fuel after gas prices dropped to $3.17 at a Marathon Station in Kokomo, Ind., Thursday, Oct. 24, 2013. dramatic local price swings are happening despite relatively stable oil prices and a national average gasoline price that has hovered around $3.50 per gallon for three years. In 2008, the last time local prices were this volatile, oil spiked to $145 a barrel in July, then plunged below $40 in late December as the global financial crisis sent energy markets reeling. The national average gasoline price ranged from $1.62 to $4.11 a gallon. (AP Photo/Michael Conroy)
FILE - This Friday, Sept. 27, 2013, file photo, shows a gas pump in Montpelier, Vt. The nationwide average price for a gallon of gas fell a penny Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, to $3.21. Thatâs the lowest average price since December 2011. (AP Photo/Toby Talbot, File)
Gas prices drop to $3.17 at a Marathon station in Kokomo, Ind., Thursday, Oct. 24, 2013. Local gasoline prices are swinging up and down ever more drastically, a result of a national fuel system that is operating with a shrinking margin for error. (AP Photo/Michael Conroy)
In this Monday, July 1, 2013 photo, vehicles are reflected in a sign advertising unleaded gas for $2.99 at a QuikTrip station in Greenville, S.C. Gasoline prices are on a summer slide, giving U.S. drivers a break as they set out for the beach and other vacation spots for the Fourth of July. (AP Photo/Rainier Ehrhardt)
A sign with gas prices is shown at a gas station Monday, July 1, 2013, in Hialeah, Fla. Gasoline prices are on a summer slide, giving U.S. drivers a break as they set out for the beach and other vacation spots for the Fourth of July. (AP Photo/Alan Diaz)
Chris King fills up his truck at a gas station displaying a price of $4.59 for a gallon of self-service regular gas Friday, Feb. 22, 2013, in San Diego. Gas prices have spiked between 57 and 59 cents over the past 30 days in California. (AP Photo/Gregory Bull)
Vehicles drive past a gas station in Andover, Mass., Friday, May 8, 2015. With more money in their pockets thanks to lower gas prices and an improved job market, AAA expects more than 37 million Americans to travel for Memorial Day, the most since 2005. (AP Photo/Elise Amendola)
Discover More Like This
BACK TO SLIDE
By JONATHAN FAHEY
NEW YORK (AP) - Exporting more U.S. crude around the world would lower the price of gasoline for U.S. drivers and benefit the U.S. economy, according to a new study released Tuesday.
While the conclusion may be counter-intuitive, the reasoning is straightforward: Exports would encourage more U.S. oil production and put that crude on the global market. That would lower the global price of oil, the price that is linked most closely to the price of gasoline in the U.S.
Exports of U.S. crude oil have been banned, with few exceptions, since soon after the 1973 Arab oil embargo.
Other studies have reaches similar conclusions. This latest study, released Tuesday, was conducted for the Brookings Institution by NERA Economic Consulting.
The study was introduced by former Obama adviser Larry Summers, who made a forceful case for removing the export restrictions as soon as possible. Summers said the decades-old restrictions serve no purpose now and that oil exports would add jobs, improve the nation's geopolitical standing, and generate desperately-needed economic growth.
"We shouldn't have prohibitions without a reason," he said. "We need all the economic benefits we can get."
The study calculates that pump prices would fall 2 cents to 12 cents per gallon on average, depending on how much oil is ultimately found and when the export restrictions are lifted, because oil prices would fall.
"Lifting the export ban would remove an artificial barrier to crude oil production," the study's authors conclude. "The result would be lower crude oil prices worldwide."
The overall U.S. economy would benefit from more oil-producing jobs, higher wages, and consumers spending the money they save on gasoline on other products, the authors conclude.
Delaying a decision on the ban, the authors say, would eliminate nearly all the potential benefits.
U.S. crude exports are allowed only with special federal approval, the result of restrictions put in place after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. The rules went largely unchallenged for decades because oil production in the U.S. was slipping while demand was rising, so few thought the U.S. would be in a position to export oil.
The U.S. still uses far more crude oil than it produces. But domestic oil production is booming in North Dakota, Texas and elsewhere thanks to improved drilling techniques. The oil being produced is a variety of crude that foreign refineries covet and that many U.S. refineries are not equipped to handle. Oil producers and some politicians have called for the export ban to be lifted.
Opposition to exports of crude comes from U.S. refiners who benefit from lower-priced U.S. crude and some politicians. They argue that lifting the ban would raise U.S. crude prices, making it less profitable for domestic refiners to produce fuel. They would then reduce production, and U.S. gasoline prices would rise.
A growing number of studies have called that into question, however. The conclusions of the Brookings report are similar to a study funded by the oil industry and performed by the research firm IHS in May and a February paper by Resources for the Future, a non-profit research group that receives funding from government and private foundations.
A survey of private, corporate and academic economists conducted by the Associated Press earlier this year found overwhelming support for oil exports. Ninety percent of the 30 economists surveyed said the economy would be better off if oil exports were allowed.