Airlines on alert as eruption begins in Iceland

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Airlines on alert as eruption begins in Iceland
Our pilot made an extra circle around #Bardarbunga this morning to let passengers check it out. Thanks to Erla Vinsý! http://t.co/7JUerxD0tE
A close up of lava from an eruption on Holuhraun, northwest of the Dyngjujoekull glacier in Iceland, Monday, Sept. 1, 2014. Lava fountains danced along a lengthy volcanic fissure near Iceland's subglacial Bardarbunga volcano Sunday, prompting authorities to raise the aviation warning code to the highest level and close the surrounding airspace. The warning was lowered 12 hours later as visibility improved and it was clear that no volcanic ash was detected. (AP Photo/Eggert Johannesson)
In this aerial view, fountains of lava, up to 60 meters high, spurt from a fissure in the ground on the north side of the Bardarbunga volcano in Iceland, Tuesday, Sept. 2, 2014. The alert warning for the area surrounding Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano remained at orange on Tuesday, indicating that it is showing increased unrest with greater potential for an explosive eruption. (AP Photo/Stefano Di Nicolo)
The sky over the site of a lava eruption on Holuhraun, northwest of the Dyngjujoekull glacier in Iceland, Monday, Sept. 1, 2014. Lava fountains danced along a lengthy volcanic fissure near Iceland's subglacial Bardarbunga volcano Sunday, prompting authorities to raise the aviation warning code to the highest level and close the surrounding airspace. The warning was lowered 12 hours later as visibility improved and it was clear that no volcanic ash was detected. (AP Photo/Eggert Johannesson)
Map locates Iceland eruption.; 2c x 4 inches; 96.3 mm x 101 mm;
A man stands near to a lava eruption on Holuhraun, northwest of the Dyngjujoekull glacier in Iceland, Monday, Sept. 1, 2014. Lava fountains danced along a lengthy volcanic fissure near Iceland's subglacial Bardarbunga volcano Sunday, prompting authorities to raise the aviation warning code to the highest level and close the surrounding airspace. The warning was lowered 12 hours later as visibility improved and it was clear that no volcanic ash was detected. (AP Photo/Eggert Johannesson)
In this aerial view, smoke and lava rise from a fissure in the ground on the north side of the Bardarbunga volcano in Iceland, Tuesday, Sept. 2, 2014. The alert warning for the area surrounding Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano remained at orange on Tuesday, indicating that it is showing increased unrest with greater potential for an explosive eruption. (AP Photo/Stefano Di Nicolo)
Map locates Bardarbunga.; 1c x 4 inches; 46.5 mm x 101 mm;
In this image taken from amateur video, smoke from the Grimsvotn volcano, Iceland is seen from a plane Saturday, May 21, 2011. Iceland's most active volcano has started erupting, scientists said Saturday, just over a year after another eruption on the North Atlantic island shut down European air traffic for days, but the impact of this volcanic eruption is not yet known. (AP Photo/Amateur video via APTN) ICELAND OUT, TV OUT
In this aerial image from video made Saturday May 8 2010 a renewed column of ash rises from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokul volcano. The plume of volcanic ash snaked its way through southern France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany on Sunday May 9, shutting down airports and disrupting flights across Europe. Trans-Atlantic connections were also being diverted around a larger patch of ash cloud stretching from southern Greenland to the coast of Portugal, adding several hours to flights between Europe and North America and causing congestion as airlines tried to squeeze their planes through remaining routes. (AP Photo/ APTN) ** TV OUT **
REYKJAVIK, ICELAND - NOVEMBER 08: Towering ash plume from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull crater during it's eruption, spewing tephra and cloud of ashes that drift toward continental Europe on May 10 2010 near Reykjavik, Iceland. (Photo by Etienne De Malglaive/Getty Images)
In this image from video made Saturday May 8 2010 a renewed column of ash rises from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokul volcano. The plume of volcanic ash snaked its way through southern France, Switzerland, Italy and Germany on Sunday May 9, shutting down airports and again disrupting flights across Europe. Trans-Atlantic connections were also being diverted around a larger patch of ash cloud stretching from southern Greenland to the coast of Portugal, adding several hours to flights between Europe and North America and causing congestion as airlines tried to squeeze their planes through remaining routes. (AP Photo/ APTN) ** TV OUT **
A plume of ash rises from a volcano erupting under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier, Hvolsvollur, Iceland, Wednesday, May 5, 2010. A new wave of dense volcanic ash from Iceland snarled air traffic Wednesday in Ireland and Scotland and threatened to spill into the air space of England. (AP Photo/Brynjar Gauti)
Ash and cloud surround a volcano erupting under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier, Hvolsvollur, Iceland, Wednesday, May 5, 2010. A new wave of dense volcanic ash from Iceland snarled air traffic Wednesday in Ireland and Scotland and threatened to spill into the air space of England. (AP Photo/Brynjar Gauti)
Planes grounded at Belfast City Airport, Northern Ireland, Wednesday, May, 5, 2010. A new wave of dense volcanic ash from Iceland snarled air traffic Wednesday in Ireland and Scotland and threatened to spill into the air space of England. (AP Photo/Peter Morrison)
RT @TIME: See close-ups of a volcanic eruption in Iceland Photo: Ragnar Th. Sigurdsson—Arctic Images http://t.co/vlMw15zQeT http://t.co/PS9…
Iceland reopens airspace after lowering the threat alert on Bardarbunga Volcano from red to orange.
On August 31st lava began to spew from Iceland’s second tallest mountain, Bardarbunga, with fountains of molten rock reaching heights of over 160 feet.
The alert warning for the area surrounding Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano was kept at orange on Tuesday, indicating increased unrest with greater potential for an eruption. Smoke is spewing from the volcano, and lava is spouting nearby. (Sept. 2)
Iceland issues a red alert to the aviation industry for the Bardarbunga volcano, meaning significant ash emissions are likely.
This picture taken on August 23, 2014 shows scientists to fixing and updating Seismometer and communication equipment that broke down the other day over Bardarbunga volcano, Iceland. Iceland lowered its alert over the nation's largest volcanic system to orange on Sunday after keeping it for one day at the maximum level amid fears of an imminent eruption. AFP PHOTO / Arni Saeberg / ICELAND OUT (Photo credit should read ARNI SAEBERG/AFP/Getty Images)
In an in an image from an Aug. 19, 2014 video, a sign is posted on the road next to Bardarbunga, a subglacial stratovolcano located under Iceland's largest glacier. On Saturday, Aug. 23, 2014, Iceland closed airspace over the Bardarbunga volcano on Saturday after the Meteorological Office said an eruption had begun under the ice of Europe’s largest glacier. The English portion of the sign reads, ""Uncertainty phase due to unrest in Bardarbunga". (AP Photo/Courtesy Channel 2 Iceland)
Passengers stand in front of the announcement panels as all flights are canceled at Tegel Airport in Berlin, Germany, Wednesday, May 25, 2011. Hundreds of flights were canceled in Europe as winds blew the cloud of ash from the Grimsvotn volcano over parts of northern Europe. Experts say that particles in the ash could stall jet engines and sandblast planes' windows. (AP Photo/Gero Breloer)
All flights are canceled on the annunciator panel at Tegel Airport after the air space above parts of Germany was closed in Berlin, Germany, Wednesday, May 25, 2011. Hundreds of flights were canceled in Europe as winds blew the cloud of ash from the Grimsvotn volcano over parts of northern Europe. Experts say that particles in the ash could stall jet engines and sandblast planes' windows. (AP Photo/Gero Breloer)
Farmers check on their animals near Kirkjubaearklaustur 260 km (162 miles) from Reykjavík, Iceland Tuesday May 24 2011 after the Grimsvotn volcano began erupting on Saturday, sending clouds of ash high into the air that have then been carried toward the European continent on the wind. Experts say that particles in the ash could stall jet engines and sandblast planes' windows. The ash cloud forced US President Barack Obama to shorten a visit to Ireland on Monday, and has raised fears of a repeat of huge travel disruptions in Europe last year when emissions from another of Iceland's volcanos, Eyjafjalljokull, stranded millions of passengers.(AP Photo/Brynjar Gauti )
Passengers board an Icelandair flight at Akureyi Airport, Saturday, April 24, 2010, in Akureyi, Iceland to Glasgow. For the first time since the April 14 eruption, Iceland's major international airport was closed after shifting winds blew the ash cloud toward the capital of Reykjavik, west of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano. Trans-Atlantic flights on Icelandair that usually stop in Iceland were being rerouted through Glasgow in Scotland. Akureyi Airport remains open with an afternoon flight to Glasgow. (AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster)
An aircraft passes the moon over Frankfurt, central Germany, Thursday, April 22, 2010, as German air traffic went back to normality following the airspace closure due to the volcanic ash cloud that came from Iceland. (AP Photo/Michael Probst)
Sheep raise an ash cloud as they run in a field near Kirkjubaearklaustur 260 km (162 miles) from Reykjavík, Iceland Tuesday May 24 2011 after the Grimsvotn volcano began erupting on Saturday, sending clouds of ash high into the air that have then been carried toward the European continent on the wind. Experts say that particles in the ash could stall jet engines and sandblast planes' windows. The ash cloud forced US President Barack Obama to shorten a visit to Ireland on Monday, and has raised fears of a repeat of huge travel disruptions in Europe last year when emissions from another of Iceland's volcanos, Eyjafjalljokull, stranded millions of passengers.(AP Photo/Brynjar Gauti )
A dead lamb lies covered in ash near Kirkjubaearklaustur 260 km (162 miles) from Reykjavík, Iceland Tuesday May 24 2011 after the Grimsvotn volcano began erupting on Saturday, sending clouds of ash high into the air that have then been carried toward the European continent on the wind. Experts say that particles in the ash could stall jet engines and sandblast planes' windows. The ash cloud forced US President Barack Obama to shorten a visit to Ireland on Monday, and has raised fears of a repeat of huge travel disruptions in Europe last year when emissions from another of Iceland's volcanos, Eyjafjalljokull, stranded millions of passengers.(AP Photo/Brynjar Gauti )
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By JENNA GOTTLIEB and JILL LAWLESS

REYKJAVIK, Iceland (AP) - Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano burst forth with a small eruption Saturday under the ice of Europe's largest glacier, scientists said, prompting the country to close airspace over the area.

Thousands of small earthquakes have rattled the volcano, located deep beneath the Vatnajokull glacier, in the last week. Icelandic Meteorological Office vulcanologist Melissa Pfeffer said Saturday that seismic data indicated that an eruption had begun, with magma from the volcano melting ice within the glacier's Dyngjujokull icecap,

The remote area, 200 miles (320 kilometers) east of the capital of Reykjavik, is uninhabited.

The Civil Protection Department said scientists flew over the ice cap Saturday afternoon but saw no visible signs of the eruption on the surface. Late Saturday the Met Office said there were "no signs of ongoing volcanic activity."

Still, authorities raised the country's aviation alert to red - the highest level on a five-point scale - indicating the threat of "significant emission of ash into the atmosphere."

Icelandic Volcano Alert Level Raised, Starts Erupting

Icelandic authorities declared a no-fly zone of 100 nautical miles by 140 nautical miles around the eruption as a precaution, but did not shut down air space over most of the island nation in the North Atlantic.

"All airports are open and flights are on schedule," said spokeswoman Olof Baldursdottir.

A 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajokul volcano produced an ash cloud that caused a week of international aviation chaos, with more than 100,000 flights cancelled.

Pfeffer said it was not clear when, or if, the eruption would melt through the ice - which is between 100 to 400 meters (330 to 1,300 feet) thick - and fling steam and ash into the air. She said it could take up to a day for the ice to melt - or the eruption might remain contained beneath Europe's largest glacier.

Scientists were monitoring a hydrological station downstream from the volcano for flooding, a common result of volcanic eruptions in Iceland.

Pfeffer said the amount of ash produced by the new eruption would depend on the thickness of the ice.

"The thicker the ice, the more water there is, the more explosive it will be and the more ash-rich the eruption will be," she said.

Iceland sits on a volcanic hot spot in the Atlantic's mid-oceanic ridge and eruptions occur frequently, triggered when the Earth's plates move and when magma from deep underground pushes its way to the surface.

Well-practiced emergency procedures mean eruptions in Iceland usually do not cause deaths. Authorities evacuated several hundred people, mostly hikers, earlier this week from the highlands north of the Vatnajokull glacier as a precaution.

But the impact of the tiny island's volcanoes has been felt around the world.

Millions of people were stranded in April 2010, when aviation officials closed Europe's air space for five days out of fear that ash from Eyjafjallajokul could harm jet engines.

European aviation authorities later changed their policy, giving airlines detailed information about the location and density of ash clouds but leaving decisions to airlines and national regulators.

A 2011 eruption of Iceland's Grimsvotn volcano was far more powerful than Eyjafjallajokul but cause much less disruption to aviation.

The budget airline EasyJet, which flies between Britain and Iceland, said it was operating as usual. It said it would use ash-detection technology, satellite data and other information "to determine what, if any, changes it should make to its flying program" in the event of an ash cloud.

The chunk of closed airspace over the volcano extends over the North Atlantic, and Virgin Atlantic said a London-do-San Francisco flight took a detour to avoid it.

Nicholas Wyke, a spokesman for continental air traffic controller Eurocontrol, told The Associated Press in an e-mail that it was difficult to estimate how many flights typically crossed that airspace, noting that trans-Atlantic flights vary their routes based on wind conditions.

"It is unlikely that this danger area will have any significant effect on north Atlantic traffic," he said.

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Lawless reported from London. Associated Press Writer Scott Mayerowitz in New York and Jamey Keaten in Paris contributed to this report.

Online:

Icelandic Meteorological Office: http://en.vedur.is/

Follow Jill Lawless on Twitter @JillLawless

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