What Is Cost-Benefit Analysis?

Before you go, we thought you'd like these...
Cost benefit Analysis - Alamy
Alamy
April is Financial Literacy Month, and our goal is to help you raise your money IQ. In this series, we'll tackle key economic concepts -- ones that affect your everyday finances and investments -- to help you make smarter choices with every dollar decision you face.

Today's term: cost-benefit analysis.

Most of us are familiar with the term, and have a basic grasp of it. It refers to how a project or decision might be evaluated, comparing its costs with its benefits. In many cases, it's a like a quantified pros-and-cons list.

Applying cost-benefit analyses in the business world and your own personal finances can be very effective, helping decision makers avoid just going with their gut or with very rough calculations.

The Most Bang for the Buck in Business

In the business world, companies' managers might think in terms of costs and benefits if they have several possible actions they can take. For example, a cost-benefit analysis can help them determine whether to build another factory, buy a certain company, issue more stock, or expand their employee retirement benefits.

Economists apply cost-benefit analysis when they want to estimate the effect of various actions, such as government incentive programs to support the housing market, or subsidies for certain industries, or changes in tax rates, or spending on infrastructure.
Sponsored Links
The analysis can take various forms, and can involve varying degrees of complexity and precision, everything from considering opportunity costs (i.e., what is given up by making a given choice) to applying probability estimates to outcomes, to calculating the net present value of various options (which involves translating future costs and benefits into current dollars).

Assessing the costs and benefits helps zero in on the action that offers the most bang for the buck. It's good to remember, though, that these analyses are not necessarily precise, as they often include estimates, especially for qualitative factors.

Cost-Benefit Analysis in Our Lives

When pondering big decisions (or even some small ones), using cost-benefit analysis can help you be a bit more rigorous in your decision making process and more confident in the final decision you make. It comes in handy in all sorts of situations, such as when you're:
  • Weighing different career or job options. In this case, you might factor in any costs associated with getting the required training, the amount you'll expect to earn, the degree of enjoyment you'll get, the location, the commute, the wardrobe, the hours, the employee benefits, and so on.
  • Deciding whether to rent or buy a home, and what kind of home, too. You might consider costs such as the down payment, mortgage, insurance, monthly rent, along with the cost of commuting from various spots, the satisfaction provided by each location and home type, the expected cost of repairs and upkeep over time, insurance and tax costs, and resale or equity values.
  • Deciding whether to attend a particular function. Think about how much enjoyment you'll get, or how you might be able to network, versus how comfortable you'll be and what you'll give up to attend, such as an alternative activity, or $40 for gas and parking.
  • Making financial decisions: Thinking in a detailed way about the big picture can help you in such choices as how much to contribute to a retirement account, when to start collecting Social Security, whether to buy an annuity or CDs, or perhaps even which stocks to buy.
It can be applied, too, when thinking about your cellphone contract or your cable bill or whether you should hire someone to fix a leaky faucet versus tackling the job yourself. Even if you can't quantify all the factors involved in a decision, you might still include them on a list to help you come up with a final decision.

Learning about some simple economic concepts can make you a better financial thinker and decision maker.

What Is Cost-Benefit Analysis?

In a nutshell, net worth is what you get when you subtract liabilities from assets -- what you owe from what you own. Like many economic and financial terms, net worth can apply in a variety of situations.

If you're evaluating a company for your portfolio,you might glance at its balance sheet to get a handle on its net worth. Balance sheets break out assets (such as cash, inventory, and receivables) and liabilities (such as debt and accounts payable). Subtracting the latter from the former gives you net worth, which is also referred to in this context as shareholders' equity or book value.

Here's an example: As of the end of 2012, IBM's (IBM) assets totaled $119 billion, and its liabilities totaled $100 billion. Thus, its net worth, or shareholders' equity, was $19 billion.

Read more on Asset Allocation.

You probably think you've got the term down pat: Inflation means prices rising over time. Well, yes, that's pretty much right. But there's much more to inflation, and it's much more relevant to your life than you might think. Inflation can go in the opposite direction, for example, and it can spiral out of control.

Inflation is about purchasing power. It's a way to measure the changing purchasing power of our currency by tracking changes in the prices of things we buy. The national banks of various countries try to keep inflation under control through their actions and policies (such as via the interest rates they set); many aim for an annual inflation rate of about 2 percent to 3 percent.

While the concept of inflation seems simple it's actually a bit more complicated. Read more on inflation here.

Most of us are familiar with the term, and have a basic grasp of it. It refers to how a project or decision might be evaluated, comparing its costs with its benefits. In many cases, it's a like a quantified pros-and-cons list.

Applying cost-benefit analyses in the business world and your own personal finances can be very effective, helping decision makers avoid just going with their gut or with very rough calculations.

Read More About Cost-Benefit Analysis

Simply put, it's what you give up in order to do something. Imagine, for example, that you dream of becoming an engineer or a chef. If you opt to become a chef, you give up the experience of being an engineer and all that goes with it. That's an opportunity cost of becoming a chef.

Opportunity cost is also often defined, more specifically, as the highest-value opportunity forgone. So let's say you could have become a brain surgeon, earning $250,000 per year, instead of a chef earning $50,000. In that scenario, your opportunity cost, salary-wise, is $200,000. (Of course, you should also consider factors such as your enjoyment of your chosen profession.)

Read more on Opportunity Costs.

Most folks are familiar with the concept of supply and demand, but most of us also don't give it much thought, which is a mistake. That's because it applies to much more than just business.

First, to review. In basic economics, the law of supply and demand influences prices. If supply of an item is abundant, that will pressure the price downward, and vice versa. In practice, imagine that you're the only one in town selling shoehorns. Because consumers don't have any other places to buy the product, that gives you some pricing power. But if other stores in town start carrying shoehorns, you may have to drop your price to keep customers coming.

Read about the differences of supply and demand in the stock market and in our own lives here.

As the name suggests, sunk cost refers to money that has already been invested in something, money that can't be recovered. Too often, we factor that expense into our financial decision-making when we shouldn't.

Let's say you've spent $40 on a nonrefundable ticket to the theater for tomorrow night. And you're suddenly invited to play board games at a friend's house that same evening. You might think that you should go to the theater -- after all, you spent that $40 -- even though what you'd rather do is hang out with your friends and play games. The $40 is a sunk cost. It's spent, whether you go see the play or not, and the money doesn't know the difference. So you should do whatever you would rather do.

Read more on Sunk Cost.

In the most basic sense, asset allocation is simply how one's assets are divided among different asset classes, such as cash, stocks, bonds, real estate, and so on -- even insurance investments, commodities, collectibles, and other categories count.

But the term also refers to an investment strategy -- one that can reduce risk through diversification.

Clearly, having all your money in any one asset class can be risky. In 2008, the S&P 500 plunged 37 percent. If you'd held all your assets in an S&P 500 index fund, your net worth would have taken a big hit that year.

Given the harrowing ride we've been on in recent years, you might think that holding cash is the best way to protect your assets from outside forces. Think again.

Continue reading about Asset Allocation.

The concept of interest is familiar to most of us. We know that with many bank accounts, for example, we earn some interest -- though it's rather paltry these days.

But there are several kinds of interest that are calculated and represented quite differently than simple interest. Compound interest is -- pardon the pun -- one of the more interesting ones.

First, let's start with simple interest. Here's how it works: Let's say that you've parked $1,000 in an account somewhere, earning 10 percent per year in simple interest. In year one, you'll collect $100, bringing your total to $1,100. Great, eh? In year two, you get... $100. That brings your total to $1,200. In year three, you're at $1,300. You're probably catching on to the idea by now. You keep earning that interest rate off your initial principal.

Enter compound interest, which is far more exciting.

Continue reading on Compound Interest.

The meaning of the term varies depending on context. In the accounting world, for example, it refers to the change in a company's cash level over a specific period of time. If a company's cash level rises during that period, it's exhibiting positive cash flow. If it shrinks, negative cash flow.

When investors study companies to see if they might be good fits for their portfolios, they may assess "free cash flow." That reflects a company's cash flow from its operations after it pays all its expenses. Free cash flow can be viewed as the lifeblood of a company.

Read more on Cash Flow.

When it comes to financial matters, we all know what risk is -- the possibility of losing your hard-earned cash. And most of us understand that a return is what you make on an investment. What many people don't understand, though, is the relationship between the two.

The relationship between risk and return is often represented by a trade-off. In general, the more risk you take on, the greater your possible return. Think of lottery tickets, for example. They involve a very high risk (of losing your money) and the possibility of an extremely high reward (the giant check with lots of zeroes). Or penny stocks: They're also very risky and yet seem full of amazing potential.

At the other end of the spectrum are options such as a savings account at your bank, or buying government bonds. They're quite low-risk, but you're not going to make a mint on them, either -- at least not these days, with interest rates so low.

Learn more about Risk and Return.

of
SEE ALL
BACK TO SLIDE
SHOW CAPTION +
HIDE CAPTION


More money terms:
Supply and Demand
Asset allocation
Sunk cost

See all money terms to know
Read Full Story

People are Reading

The Latest from our Partners
1 - 3 of 15